Courtesy of Kauilapele
1843: Kingdom of Hawai’i recognized as an independent world state, with 46 treaty partnerships
1840, 1852, 1864: Kingdom of Hawai’i Constitutions written and adopted.
1887 (7-7): Bayonet Constitution; minority group including US nationals forced King Kalakaua to appoint council to ratify; voters now included ‘aliens’.
1893 (1-17): Overthrow of Kingdom by group of individuals and military.
1893 (2-15): Treaty of annexation submitted to the United States Senate; Grover Cleveland government said “no”, because takeover was ILLEGAL.
1897 (6-16): Treaty of annexation was attempted again, but “[it] was unable to be ratified by the [US] Senate due to protests” (Kū`ē Petition of 1897, 21,169 (90+%) Hawai’ians signed, said “NO” to annexation)
1898 (7-7): US enacted a congressional joint resolution; Hawai’i “annexed” as “war measure” ILLEGAL
1959 (6-29): Vote for US Statehood held, but only one choice (proposition) given, “Shall Hawaii immediately be admitted into the Union as a State?” [Yes or No] Should have had 3 choices, independence, free association, integration.
1993: The “Apology” Resolution… “The Congress… apologizes to Native Hawaiians… for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii… [and commits] to acknowledge the ramifications… and to support reconciliation efforts between the [US] and the Native Hawaiian people.” Overthrow admitted, but NO MENTION OF THE “KINGDOM OF HAWAI’I” or restoring US recognition of the Kingdom.
These events/documents display a pattern of deception, and attempts to undermine and de-legitimize the Kingdom of Hawai’i by the US.
The data shows the Kingdom of Hawai’i was never terminated, and its status is best described as that of “occupied nation”.
Conclusion: the Kingdom of Hawai’i still exists today.
General & History: http://www.hawaiiankingdom.org
Kū`ē Petition, 1897: http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/hawaii-petition/
Apology resolution: http://www.hawaii-nation.org/publawall.html
All “Hawai’ian Kingdom” series posts may be viewed by going to the “Categories” drop-down list at the right of each page and selecting “Hawai’ian Kingdom”, or clicking the Hawai’ian Kingdom shield (on the right side of this page), or by clicking this link: https://kauilapele.wordpress.com/category/hawaiian-kingdom-2