What if you were told the US Navy is legally permitted to harass, injure or kill nearly 12 million whales, dolphins, porpoises, sea lions and seals across the North Pacific Ocean over a five-year period?
It is true, and over one-quarter of every tax dollar you pay is helping to fund it.
A multistate, international citizen watchdog group called the West Coast Action Alliance (WCAA), tabulated numbers that came straight from the Navy’s Northwest Training and Testing EIS (environmental impact statement) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Letters of Authorization for incidental “takes” of marine mammals issued by NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service.
“It is outrageous to think that humans have quantified all of the impacts their actions cause to the marine environment.”
A “take” is a form of harm to an animal that ranges from harassment, to injury, and sometimes to death. Many wildlife conservationists see even “takes” that only cause behavior changes as injurious, because chronic harassment of animals that are feeding or breeding can end up harming, or even contributing to their deaths if they are driven out of habitats critical to their survival.
Karen Sullivan, a spokesperson for the WCAA, is a former endangered species biologist and assistant regional director at the US Fish and Wildlife Service; she is now retired.
“The numbers are staggering,” she told Truthout, speaking about the number of marine mammals the Navy is permitted to take. “When you realize the same individual animals can be harassed over and over again as they migrate to different areas, there is no mitigation that can make up for these losses except limiting the use of sonar and explosives where these animals are trying to live.”
Yet the aforementioned staggering numbers are still lower-end estimates, as they do not include dozens of other military projects in the same areas, such as construction using underwater pile driving, and they only apply to marine mammals, not other species.
According to the WCAA, the numbers “do not include takes to endangered and threatened seabirds, fish, sea turtles or terrestrial species impacted by Navy activities, using sonar, explosives, underwater and surface drones, sonobuoys, ships, submarines, aircraft, or troops training on 68 beaches and state parks in western Washington.”
The WCAA has called the numbers “unprecedented,” and provided more analysis of naval operations and permits of what is to come that are equally shocking.
The staggering number of “takes” the Navy is permitted to generate is accompanied by an overall increase in a large number of other dangerous activities as well.
Their October 2015 EIS shows increases in the following activities (this is not a complete list):
– A 778 percent increase in number of torpedoes
– A 400 percent increase in air-to-surface missile exercises (including Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary)
– A 1,150 percent increase in drone aircraft
– A 1,150 percent increase in drone surface vehicles
– A 1,450 percent increase in expendable devices
– A 72 percent increase in electronic warfare operations
– A 50 percent increase in explosive ordnance disposal in Crescent Harbor and Hood Canal
– A 244 percent increase in air combat maneuvers (dogfighting)
– A 400 percent increase in helicopter tracking exercises
– A 3,500 percent increase in number of sonobuoys
– From none to 284 sonar testing events in inland waters
The Growler fighter aircraft used in the Navy’s electromagnetic warfare training are the loudest aircraft ever built. It is worth noting that the noise threshold for hearing damage in humans is 85 decibels. Similar to the Richter scale used for measuring earthquakes, sound measurements are not linear. For every increase of 10 decibels, the intensity of the noise increases tenfold.
“Is maintaining military readiness to address obscure threats to national security worth defending the oceans to death?”
“Therefore, a 115-decibel noise, which is what a Growler jet makes when passing overhead at an altitude of 1,000 feet, is a thousand times louder than the 85-decibel threshold for hearing damage,” the WCAA website explains. Growlers generate 150 decibels at takeoff.
The injurious qualities of high levels of noise are heightened underwater.
“Navy sonar is capable of at least 235 decibels at the source,” according to the website. “This is over 10 trillion times more intense than the 85-decibel threshold.”
Such intensity means that even at a distance of 300 miles away from the source, underwater noise can still be 140 decibels.
It is worth noting that the level of 140 decibels is sufficient to vibrate and rupture internal organs, and has even been assessed by the French government as “a weapon to kill people.”
Hence, many marine mammals with large liquid-filled spaces in their heads for echolocation are particularly susceptible to any and all sonar use by naval exercises. It is, and has been for quite some time now, well known in the scientific community that the Navy’s use of sonar can damage and kill marine life.
The Navy is already permitted to also conduct two ship sinking exercises each year while using 24 bombs, 22 missiles, 80 “large caliber” rounds and two “heavyweight” high explosive torpedoes. Obviously, each of these exercises has significant impacts on all marine life in the vicinity in which it takes place.
The Navy is also permitted to conduct 30 air-to-surface bombing exercises and 160 gunnery exercises annually. Additionally, one active-duty Navy pilot confided that “fuel dumping” incidents occur about once every month.
Every piece of data available on the Navy’s impacts on wildlife should be taken with a grain of salt — because chances are, the actual impacts are much greater, according to Emily Stolarcyk, the program manager of the Eyak Preservation Council based in Cordova, Alaska. The council is an environmental and social-justice-oriented nonprofit organization whose primary mission is to protect wild salmon habitat.
Stolarcyk, who is leading the effort to minimize the effects of the naval training exercises in the Gulf of Alaska, believes the Navy’s proposed marine training exercises in the northern Pacific reflect intentions and actions that she says are “fallacious and deeply flawed.”
“The Navy’s massive levels of testing and training for war are helping to make our oceans barren.”
“It is outrageous to think that humans have quantified all of the impacts their actions cause to the marine environment,” Stolarcyk told Truthout. “With the limited observation practiced, the Navy’s activities have proved lethal to large marine species. What about the unknown impacts? What about fish? What about the bottom of the food chain? What about the long-term significance?”
She pointed out that the nearly 12 million “takes” the Navy is permitted to cause do not include proposed “takes” in the Gulf of Alaska. According to Stolarcyk, the Navy is proposing 36,522 “takes” per year in the Gulf of Alaska, with a total of 182,610 over five years. The Letter of Authorization from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration places the total number at over 2 million.
The shocking numbers, along with the relative dearth of advocacy on behalf of the affected animals, does not bode well for the future, according to Connie Gallant, the president of the conservation and restoration group Olympic Forest Coalition, which is based on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State.
Speaking with Truthout about the incredibly high number of “takes” the Navy is permitted to generate across the northern Pacific, including the Gulf of Alaska, Gallant said, “I am absolutely appalled at seeing these numbers. Where are the ‘environmentally concerned’ agencies entrusted to protect wildlife and marine mammals?”
Stolarcyk listed some of the marine mammal species that are impacted by the Navy’s trainings in the Gulf of Alaska alone:
– North Pacific right whale (endangered species)
– humpback whale (endangered species)
– blue whale (endangered species)
– fin whale (endangered species)
– sei whale (endangered species)
– gray whale (endangered species)
– minke whale
– sperm whale (endangered species)
– killer whale
– Pacific white-sided dolphin
– harbor porpoise
– Dall’s porpoise
– Steller sea lion (endangered species)
– California sea lion
– northern fur seal
– northern elephant seal
– harbor seal
– sea otter (endangered species)
“The Navy is blatantly justifying destruction of species and habitats many Americans have worked to keep protected for a long time,” Stolarcyk said. “Many wonder, to what end? Is maintaining military readiness to address obscure threats to national security worth defending the oceans to death?”
Gallant is equally confounded by the Navy’s actions and these staggering numbers.
“I do wonder why the public has to dig so hard to find these numbers,” she said. “Why this isn’t front-page news around the world? Because it looks like the military is being given a pass wherever they operate when it comes to harming marine life with sonar and explosives.”
It is worth noting that the “technology” the Navy uses to ensure whether marine mammals are present in the vicinity of their exercises is the same “technology” that has been used since the 17th century — two lookouts at the bow of the ship. The Navy will not allow civilian observers from the US Fish and Wildlife Service (experts) on board during their exercises, nor will they allow the Fish and Wildlife Service to train the Navy’s own observers on seabird identification.
“How is it possible to get an accurate count of injuries and lethal takes when the Navy won’t allow neutral civilian observers aboard?” Gallant asked. “With the disrespectful way they’ve treated people in western Washington, how can we trust them to report takes accurately?”
The Navy Responds
Truthout requested comment from the Navy about the nearly 12 million takes it is permitted to cause with its exercises. The Navy was asked to comment on what it was doing to mitigate its potentially harmful activities, as well as on the dramatic increases in those activities, and why the increases are taking place.
Sheila Murray, a Navy deputy public affairs officer for Navy Region Northwest, replied that the numbers cited are “incorrect,” and referred Truthout to the exact same naval documents from which those numbers were pulled, but pointed to only the Northwest portion (the Naval Northwest Training and Testing EIS/OEIS).
Murray also referenced the National Marine Fisheries Service Letter of Authorization and Final Rule for the Navy’s proposed activities, and told Truthout, “These documents thoroughly describe the Navy’s proposed activities, analyze potential environmental impacts using the best available science, and describe the array of mitigations and procedures developed to be protective of marine life.”
Truthout asked Sullivan to respond to Murray’s claim that the extremely high number of “takes” was “incorrect.”
“The sources Ms. Murray suggested are the same ones we used,” Sullivan said. “All we did was to grab a calculator and add up the numbers provided by the Navy and NOAA. I rechecked the numbers, and they haven’t changed, except for the fact that NOAA’s 2011 Letter of Authorization for the Gulf of Alaska issued to the Navy is no longer available online.”
A source within the Navy, speaking with Truthout on condition on anonymity, said that the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Navy have “an equally incestuous relationship.”
“I’ve personally sat in on teleconference calls with Ben Laws (NOAA – NMFS Permits and Conservation Division) which discussed the Navy exceeding its Take authorization, exceeding noise levels above what was authorized in their Marine Mammal Protection Act IHA [Incidental Harassment Authorization] permit and failing to re-initiate consultation when the Navy knew of those violations,” he said. “The Navy received merely a slap on the wrist and the public was never aware of the true nature of the Take or the violations.”
Blatant Disregard and Blue Deserts
Stolarcyk is troubled by the fact that the Navy is allowed to keep a number of other details about its training plans confidential, given the high “take” estimates they’ve made available to the general public.
“If these are the things they are quietly releasing to the public, there is no telling how horrendous the classified details of these trainings may be,” she said.
She is also concerned about the fact that the Navy has plans to conduct more exercises during the month of May, particularly because in the Navy’s entire history of conducting training exercises, they have never trained in May in the Gulf of Alaska.
May is prime migratory season for millions of birds, fish and marine mammals through the Gulf of Alaska.
“Many would argue that that is the very worst time of year for the Navy to be out there blasting away with ordnance and sonar,” Stolarcyk said. “Additionally, despite many outcries from local communities and tribal groups, the Navy is continuing their exercises, even increasing them in some areas without public consent or consideration.”
Jill Silver, a board member of the Olympic Forest Coalition, who has also worked with the Olympic Coast Alliance, another Washington State-based environmental group, told Truthout that the alliance attempted to take on this issue, “but we found that there’s no law that constrains the US Navy or trumps ‘national security’ and we didn’t have the capacity to engage the public in an effective and sustained campaign that might have resulted in changes from the congressional level.”
Sullivan pointed out an instance where the Navy was held in check by a lawsuit, but that it too had limited scope. “The Navy was sued over similar activities in Southern California-Hawaii waters, where the number of takes went from 150,000 to 2.8 million per year,” she explained. “They were ordered by the court to back off from a few areas that are critical for marine mammals, which begs the question: Why wouldn’t those prohibitions apply to rich northern waters, too? Regardless, that agreement expires in 2018, and unless the Navy is sued again they probably won’t respect the areas currently off limits.”
Sullivan is troubled, she said, by the fact that governments already have the technology and weaponry to obliterate the human race — and countless other species, including marine life — many times over, and what the Navy is doing exacerbates this risk.
“The Navy’s massive levels of testing and training for war are helping to make our oceans barren,” she said.
The best estimate for the number of gray whales in the eastern areas of the North Pacific is around 21,000, according to Sullivan.
“But the numbers of ‘takes’ allowed to the Navy in the areas of the Pacific where gray whales might be found is 62,550,” she said. “It becomes clear that multiple harassment incidents to the same animals throughout their range are not only anticipated but allowed.”
Stolarcyk pointed out that many human interactions with the oceans are unavoidable; we boat, we fish, people everywhere use and depend on the oceans, and they are invaluable to human life. However, we should not assume that our activities have no consequences — nor assume that this essential resource can be endlessly exploited.
“The oceans are delicate and finite; we know now that there is a limit to what the seas can provide,” Stolarcyk said. “Oceans are not blue deserts [devoid of life] and should not be treated as such; we must tread carefully, for the footprint we leave will be a lasting one.”
Copyright, Truthout. May not be reprinted without permission.
Dahr Jamail, a Truthout staff reporter, is the author of The Will to Resist: Soldiers Who Refuse to Fight in Iraq and Afghanistan, (Haymarket Books, 2009), and Beyond the Green Zone: Dispatches From an Unembedded Journalist in Occupied Iraq, (Haymarket Books, 2007). Jamail reported from Iraq for more than a year, as well as from Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Turkey over the last 10 years, and has won the Martha Gellhorn Award for Investigative Journalism, among other awards.
His third book, The Mass Destruction of Iraq: Why It Is Happening, and Who Is Responsible, co-written with William Rivers Pitt, is available now on Amazon. He lives and works in Washington State.
Author: U.S. Navy Destroying Dolphins & Whales, Attacking Earth’s Life Frequency
In an exclusive ExopoliticsTV interview with Alfred Lambremont Webre, Patricia Cori, author of Before We Leave You: Messages from the Great Whales and the Dolphin Beings, has stated that the 5-year sonar testing program announced by the U.S. Navy is having a destructive effect far beyond what the conventional analysis and media are reporting. The environmental impacts of the U.S. Navy sonar-testing program include the estimated annihilation of 13 million sea mammals, including cetaceans such as dolphins and whales.
According to Ms. Cori, the cetaceans being targeted by the U.S. Navy sonar program carry out an important role in maintaining the frequency of vibration of the Earth’s oceans and hence of the planet itself. Ms. Cori demonstrated a series of mandala frequency patterns generated from the sound music produce by dolphins and whales by scientist Mark Fisher. It is this cetacean sound music that, according to Ms. Cori, in turn has a frequency effect on the ocean waters, lifting it to higher vibrations.
Intelligence, Ms. Cori states, is associated with higher vibrational fields, and hence the cetaceans are performing a function of sustaining higher intelligence in the natural ecology. The effects of the U.S. Navy sonar targeting, which may be far beyond weapons testing into operational targeting and genocide of cetaceans, is to lower the vibrational field of the Earth and slow its elevation and transition into a more evolved dimension.
View ExopoliticsTV interview with Patricia Cori
Readers can watch the exclusive ExopoliticsTV interview with Patricia Cori and Alfred Lambremont Webre embedded in the article above, or at the URL below:
Cetaceans: dolphins and whales and other sea-life to be decimated by U.S. Navy
Patricia Cori’s statements are also congruent with those of researcher Rosalind Peterson, who is actively concerned about the impact of the U.S. Navy’s sonar program on cetaceans.
Rosalind Peterson states, “The United States Navy will be decimating millions of marine mammals and other aquatic life, each year, for the next five years, under their Warfare Testing Range Complex Expansions in the Atlantic, Pacific, and the Gulf of Mexico. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS under NOAA), has already approved the “taking” of marine mammals in more than a dozen Navy Range Warfare Testing Complexes, and is preparing to issue another permit for 11.7 millions marine mammals (32 Separate Species), to be decimated along the Northern, California, Oregon and Washington areas of the Pacific Ocean.
“U.S. Department of Commerce – NOAA (NMFS) Definition: ‘TAKE’ Defined under the MMPA as ‘harass, hunt, capture, kill or collect, or attempt to harass, hunt, capture, kill or collect.’ Defined under the ESA as ‘to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct.’ Definition: Incidental Taking: An unintentional, but not unexpected taking.
“The total number of marine mammals that will be decimated in the Atlantic, Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico for the next five years is unknown. The NMFS approvals will have a devastating impact upon the marine mammal populations worldwide and this last Navy permit, which is expected to be issued in February 2010, for the “taking” of more than 11.7 million marine mammals in the Pacific will be the final nail in the coffin for any healthy populations of sea life to survive.
“Now with ever-increasing numbers of permits being issued for sonar programs in more than twelve ranges in the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic regions of the United States, our marine mammals and other sea life are facing complete devastation. When you add bomb blasts to this list, warfare testing of all types, future war testing practice, and the toxic chemicals that are both airborne and to be used underwater, there is little chance that most marine life will survive in any significant numbers. Our U.S. Senators and U.S. Congressmen refuse to postpone these disastrous “takings” or hold U.S. Congressional Hearings while pretending to be ocean environment friendly in their re-election speeches.
“[During] June 8th through June 16, 2009, a delegation from Connecticut and California spent time walking the halls of the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives. We left petitions, color fliers, and information about saving our marine mammals, requested a postponement and U.S. Congressional Hearings. Ninety-nine senate offices were visited and 2/3 of offices in the U.S. House of Representatives. The silent response from our elected officials regarding these two requests has been zero…one U.S. Congressman even stated that citizens would be ‘laughed out of the halls of the U.S. Congress for suggesting that we protect our marine mammals’. Corporate paid ‘Lobbyists’, who hand out money by the $Millions, on the other hand, are always accepted at hearings, give testimony, and are welcomed in the halls of Congress…apparently the voices of citizens of the United States are not given the same status.
“These virtually unregulated Navy Warfare Testing Programs already approved are now taking a toll on marine mammals, the fishing and ocean tourism industries, and on all aquatic life. Many U.S. Senators and Congressmen are ignoring these issues by pretending that they doesn’t exist even though they have been informed in advance of these programs.
“A brief history of the Navy Warfare Testing Program is needed to understand the full implications of this Pentagon/Navy Warfare Testing Program. In 2004, the Bush Administration signed a bill weakening U.S. Environmental Laws, with regard to the U.S. Navy. And then in 2008, President Bush signed an executive order allowing the Navy to be exempt from environmental laws that protects endangered and threatened species (2-4). The Navy Southern California Complex was the first one to benefit from this executive order. Soon other Navy Range Complexes were obtaining exemptions from the NMFS with little or no oversight or significant mitigation measures.
“A partial listing of known Navy Range Complexes shows the amazing scope of the disaster. According to U.S. Congressman Waxman in a letter dated March 12, 2009: ‘…The Navy estimates that its sonar training activities will ‘take’ marine mammals more than 11.7 million times over the course of a five-year permit…The sonar exercises at issue would take place off the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, Hawaii, Alaska and in the Gulf of Mexico – affecting literally every coastal state. In many regions, the Navy plans to increase the number of training exercises or expand the areas in which they may occur. Of particular concern are biologically sensitive marine habitats off our coasts, such as National Marine Sanctuary and other breeding habitats…In all, the Navy anticipates that its sonar exercises will ‘take’ marine mammals more than 2.3 million times per year, or 11.7 million times over the course of a 5-year permit….’ This statement was made in response to public inquiries regarding the Navy Northwest Training Range schedule for Northern California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.
“KTVU Oakland San Francisco Television Station is the only television station to investigate and air a story about this U.S. Navy program (13), on May 18, 2009. It took a great deal of courage, in the face of the fact that no other major television networks would carry this story. A few courageous radio stations are also helping to get the word out to the public.
Published in the United States Federal Register on March 11, 2009: “The United States Navy published an application, as an addendum to their expanded Warfare Testing program, in the U.S. Federal Register, dated March 11, 2009. This application from the Navy ‘requests authorization to take individuals of 32 species of marine mammals during upcoming Navy Warfare testing and training to be conducted in the NWTR areas (off the Pacific coasts of Washington, Oregon, and northern California) over the course of 5 years…’
“The Navy Warfare Testing Program will ‘utilize mid- and high frequency active sonar sources and explosive detonations. These sonar and explosive sources will be utilized during Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Tracking Exercises, Mine Avoidance Training, Extended Echo Ranging and Improved Extended Echo Ranging (EER/IEER) events, Missile Exercises, Gunnery Exercises, Bombing Exercises, Sinking Exercises, and Mine Warfare Training’ (More listed in Navy E.I.S.)
“The ‘taking’ of marine mammals negatively impacts the entire ecology of our oceans and the life in them which feeds large numbers of people and other species around the world. It should be noted that the list of toxic chemicals that the Navy proposes to use is a long one as noted in the Navy E.I.S. Depleted uranium, red and white phosphorus, mercury, lead, and a whole host of chemicals known to be toxic not only to man, but to marine life, are being served up on the “Navy Warfare Chemical Menu” that will contaminate our air, water, and soil.
Since all of the Navy Warfare Training Range Complexes have received, or will receive in the near future, permits to “take” marine mammals during their respective 5-year warfare training programs the cumulative and synergistic effects of losing millions of marine mammals will be disastrous. It is time to say no to any future permits being issued by the National Marine Fisheries Services.”
U.S. Navy anti-cetacean sonar as surrogates for Orion grey and Draco reptilian ET occupation
In the ExopoliticsTV interview, Ms. Cori and Mr. Webre discuss whether the U.S. Navy are acting as surrogates in a covert attempted occupation by planet Earth by Orion grey extraterrestrials and Draco reptilians. By targeting the most evolved mammalian intelligent species on the planet, the cetacean dolphin and whales, the U.S. Navy appears to be acting to reduce the vibratory frequency to Earth to make it a more hospitable ecology as a reptilian-based planet, hosting cloned or mind-controlled humans in a world authoritarian-like dictatorship.
U.S. Navy sonar attacks on cetaceans congruent with Orion grey and Draco reptilian war as confirmed by UK whistleblower Michael Prince
As this column has reported, “Michael Prince, an active duty whistleblower trained to be a cyborg super soldier assassin in SS and MI-6 U.K. intelligence networks, has stated that World War III, a war between hostile extraterrestrial civilizations and the human civilization has started. Armed hostilities between human forces and hostile extraterrestrial forces are now taking place frequently, Mr. Prince states. The negative extraterrestrial-human alliance intent on Earth take-over is referred to as the Military Industrial Extraterrestrial Complex [MIEC].
“Because of the superior survival dynamics of the human species, Mr. Prince states, human society will defeat the hostile extraterrestrial civilizations that consist mainly of a Grey and Draco Reptilian faction. “It is a dangerous situation,” Mr. Prince states at the end of the interview. “However, all is under control and people should not panic.”
For a full description, please read:
As discussed in the ExopoliticsTV interview with Patricia Cori, it appears that the U.S. Navy sonar-testing program is in fact an operational combat attack program against cetaceans on behalf of the U.S. Navy exopolitical masters, the Orion grey and Draco reptilian extraterrestrials.
Exopolitical identity of cetacean nation: Intelligent extraterrestrial species based in Earth’s oceans
According to Ms. Cori, there are cetacean representatives on the Sirian High council, a galactic governance body. The cetaceans on Earth, whales and dolphins, are in fact the most intelligent and multi-dimensional species on surface of the planet, and work in close coordination with upper-dimensional, ethical intelligent civilizations that have an oversight and seminal role in the development of homo sapiens and of the fauna and flora of the ecology of Earth.
The dolphins and whales themselves, Ms. Cori states, communicate with humans and state that they are in communication with advanced extraterrestrial species. For example, it has been reported that whales and dolphins are teleported by extraterrestrial craft up from the ocean onto ET craft, where they are held in special pens, and downloaded with ecological and multi-dimensional information via multi-colored lights before being returned again into the ocean to complete their ecological missions.
Human awareness is key to future cetacean survival and ecological wellbeing
The impetus for Patricia Cori’s book – Before We Leave You – began with spontaneous dimensional communications from cetaceans in distress because of targeting by U.S. Navy sonar.
Ms. Cori indicates she has written her book as a communication from the cetacean conscious community – the cetacean nation – to conscious progressive humans to become aware of the attack upon them and upon the oceans of the world, and hence upon the very ecology of the Earth.
In the course of the ExopoliticsTV interview, Patricia Cori indicated she is starting a Foundation to support cetacean awareness, and will be inviting cetacean activists like Rosalind Peterson into dialogue.
Ms. Cori indicated that persons wishing to join her cetacean awareness campaign can contact her through her website:
Author: ET council seeded Homo sapiens as intelligent beings with 12-strand DNA
Before We Leave You by Patricia Cori (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books)
Atlantis Rising by Patricia Cori (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books)
No More Secrets, No More Lies by Patricia Cori (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books)