GSM Update 3/28/18 – Record Flooding & Snow – Öræfajökull Outgases – Cosmic Rays & Mass Extinction


 

 

Near-record cold turn Great Lakes region blue in first week of April http://www.mlive.com/weather/index.ss…

Will the Cold Stretch Continue in April? https://www.nbcphiladelphia.com/weath…

Multi-Day Heavy Rain Event over the Lower Mississippi Valley https://www.weather.gov/ 31 YEAR OLD SNOWFALL RECORD BROKEN IN GRANDE PRAIRIE https://www.mygrandeprairienow.com/37…

Extremely heavy rain floods Queensland, Australia https://watchers.news/2018/03/27/extr…

European GFS https://www.tropicaltidbits.com/analy…

Researchers find evidence of 1755 earthquake — at bottom of Lynn pond https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/201…

Study Reveals Earthquake Dangers in Spain https://www.livescience.com/24732-anc… Live Seismic Map Spain: http://www.ign.es/web/resources/sismo…

Rupture directivity of the 2011, Mw 5.2 Lorca earthquake (Spain) https://www.researchgate.net/publicat…

Unusual smell detected in ice cave near Öræfajökull volcano, Iceland https://watchers.news/2018/03/27/unus…

Minor earthquake activity on Tjörnes Fracture Zone http://www.jonfr.com/volcano/ Worldwide Volcano News and Updates:https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volc…

It is 9 RESE’s belief that we need more parlors of discourse for the discussion of legitimate curiosities of science. The burden of knowledge is great when the access to the depths of “man’s” knowledge is ever accessible. 9 RESE’s is providing such a Parlor of Discourse. https://9rese.com/

Varying cosmic-ray flux may explain cycles of biodiversity https://physicstoday.scitation.org/do…

Do extragalactic cosmic rays induce cycles in fossil diversity? https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0602092

Biological implications of high‐energy cosmic ray induced muon flux in the extragalactic shock model https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.c…

Research increases distance at which supernova would spark mass extinctions on Earth https://phys.org/news/2017-05-distanc…

Mind Blown: https://img.buzzfeed.com/buzzfeed-sta…

Boom Science: https://i.imgur.com/39zqBgJ.gif

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*Earth Changes Safe Zones*MT Etna Sliding into Sea*Kenya Splitting In Two*Sky Anomalies*Eruptions*


 

 

 

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https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018…

http://www.aerospace.org/cords/reentr…

http://stuffin.space/?intldes=2011-05…

https://globalnews.ca/news/4100391/bi…

Volcano Watch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMQXw…

Chris Thomas Wakefield https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCY6i…

Avalanche in Russia START https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qunRd…

KTNKENYA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXH-1…

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-xir1hasoq_…

https://survivingthepoleshift.files.w…

http://freemantv.com/wp-content/galle…

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https://api.ning.com/files/nEx8YW**PG…

http://planetx.yolasite.com/resources…

https://web.northeastern.edu/protect/…

https://survivingthepoleshift.files.w…

http://strangesounds.org/2018/03/eart…

GSM Update 3/10/18 – Shinmoe Lava Flow- Prime Aurora – Dead Manatees – Fart Bags? ~ Oppenheimer Ranch Project


 

 

(Mar 10 0337UTC) Solar wind intensifications have lead to increasingly disrupted geomagnetic conditions. Earth’s magnetic field is currently experiencing moderate instability, may enter storm conditions over the next 24 hours, and is unlikely to exceed Kp6 (minor/moderate effects). http://spaceweathernews.com/

The Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) carried past Earth via the solar wind is currently in a south pointing position. This is helping to stir up geomagnetic activity at higher latitudes. A minor (G1) geomagnetic storm watch will be in effect for the next several hours. Sky watchers across Scandinavia, Canada, northern tier USA and Alaska should all be alert for visible aurora once dark outside. http://www.solarham.net/index.htm

Northeaster Wreaks Havoc With Flooding, High Winds, Power Outages https://www.capenews.net/falmouth/new…

Freeze Warning – NWS Forecast Office Tallahassee, FL https://www.weather.gov/tae// Southwest Florida Forecast: Cool weather with extreme fire danger https://www.naplesnews.com/story/weat…

GFS Model https://www.tropicaltidbits.com/analy…

More manatees died from cold stress this winter https://www.floridatoday.com/story/ne… B.C. flood fears grow amid rising temperatures and above average snowpack http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british…

Extreme weather could be the norm https://www.independent.ie/regionals/…

The idea is that cosmic rays seed clouds by ionizing molecules in Earth’s atmosphere https://www.facebook.com/SolarShutdow…

Svensmark – Cosmic Ray Flux – http://www.fakeclimate.com/arquivos/I…

Parts of north Queensland still at risk of flooding, police warn https://www.theguardian.com/australia…

Families rescued as flooding turns to disaster levels https://www.themorningbulletin.com.au…

Mount Etna ERUPTION: Rapid earthquakes spark fears of fiery volcano about to blow https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/…

Lava flow confirmed at Mt. Shinmoe following eruptions https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/…

10/3/2018 – Mt Shinmoedake (新燃岳) Big Eruption https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCdSw…

Mayon volcano eruption: Rumbling heard for MILES as lava explodes 7 TIMES in 24 hours https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/…

9/3/2018 – Mt Mayon TimeLapse https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G8p8u…

Bright flash, sonic boom as minivan-sized bolide explodes over Washington https://watchers.news/2018/03/09/brig…

California just passed a law regulating cow farts https://www.theblaze.com/news/2016/11…

These Backpacks For Cows Collect Their Fart Gas And Store It For Energy https://www.fastcompany.com/3028933/t…

tangobayus GSM Solutions on You Tube https://www.youtube.com/user/tangobay…

iGO Solar Single Sloped Greenhouse https://www.igroworganic.com/solar-gr…

Grand Solar Minimum Update 3/1/18 – Sierra Blizzard Warning – Record Snow Croatia – Extinct Bosavi? ~ Oppenheimer Ranch Project


 

 

Year’s biggest storm coming; snow predicted in Shasta County, Northern California http://www.redding.com/story/news/201…

Snow on the way to greet March – Up to a foot possible above 7,000 feet on Thursday http://www.mtexpress.com/news/environ…

Major nor’easter will inflict destructive wind and coastal flooding in New England https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/c…

Bitter cold hits Chamonix https://www.chamonet.com/snow/bitter-…

6.5 feet of snow in East Glacier is a February record http://www.greatfallstribune.com/stor…

108 degrees today? If not, Miles City sets record http://www.greatfallstribune.com/stor… After record-breaking heat, heavy snow is on the way in Hamilton http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/hamilto…

PANIC BUYING UK: Supermarket fights break out and shelves empty as snow SMASHES Britain https://www.express.co.uk/news/weathe…

Heavy snow traps hundreds overnight on M80 in Scotland https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2…

Here was Wednesday the coldest day for 39 years – so late in the winter http://vejr.tv2.dk/2018-02-28-her-ble…

Record snowfall in Croatia, sub-zero temperatures on the Adriatic coast http://www.euronews.com/2018/02/27/re…

‘Basyang’ crop losses hit P9.2 million http://www.sunstar.com.ph/bacolod/loc…

Now lightning is added to the mix of threats http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/n… Cumbria earthquake: Houses shake as tremor of 3.2 magnitude hits county https://news.sky.com/story/amp/houses…

Volcano in southwestern Japan erupts https://english.kyodonews.net/news/20…

Extinct Bosavi volcano showing signs of awakening, Papua New Guinea https://watchers.news/2018/02/28/exti…

Robert W. Felix, author of Not by Fire but by Ice and Magnetic Reversals and Evolutionary Leaps https://www.iceagenow.info/about-the-…

Heads Up: https://images.yourstory.com/2015/10/…

Boom: https://pmcdeadline2.files.wordpress….

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GSM Update 12/13/17 – Arctic Fear Mongering – Volcano Update – Geminid Meteors ~ Oppenheimer Ranch Report OPR


 

 

 

 

Snow Cover Maps Nov 12th to Dec 12th 2017 https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/snow-and-ic… Snow Cover Maps Nov 12 to Dec 12th 2016 https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/snow-and-ic…

Extreme Cold Weather Alert issued for Toronto, seek shelter, check on loved ones. https://watchers.news/2017/12/12/extr…

World’s largest snowball fight cancelled because of too much snow. http://www.foxnews.com/travel/2017/12…

Strengthening cyclone Urduja to bring life-threatening flooding to the Philippines this week. https://www.accuweather.com/en/weathe…

Cobb, Carroll counties set record snowfall during Friday’s storm http://www.wsbtv.com/news/local/cobb-…

Weather records set in Hilo as E. Hawaii gets above-average rainfall. http://hawaiitribune-herald.com/news/…

Warming Arctic is ‘new normal’, extreme weather events will be more frequent:

Report: http://www.straitstimes.com/world/uni…

Major flooding after rivers overflow in Emilia-Romagna, Italy https://watchers.news/2017/12/12/majo…

Citrus crop declines continue, making case for fed aid http://www.theledger.com/news/2017121…

Polar bear video: Is it really the ‘face of climate change’? http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-cana…

Current Alaska Ice Extent Map 12-12-2017 http://www.natice.noaa.gov/pub/ims/im… Planetary K-Index Live http://services.swpc.noaa.gov/images/…

Subsidence of Öræfajökull ice cauldron slowing down http://icelandmonitor.mbl.is/news/nat…

Iceland’s Most Dangerous Volcano Appears to Be Waking Up, Prompting Officials to Raise Alert. https://weather.com/en-CA/canada/scie…

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/artic…

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Etna

Decade Volcanoes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decade_… https://watchers.news/2017/12/12/gemi…

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GSM Update 12/2/17 – Agung Shaking – Global Flooding – Temp Anomaly – Al Gore Is Back


 

 

A severe storm hit Albania on Thursday, November 30, 2017, and continued affecting the country on December 1, causing severe flooding in central areas of the country. Citizens are urged to follow official advice and avoid unnecessary travel as the situation is expected to get much worse later today, especially in the country’s south. Heavy rain is expected to continue for several days, with major flooding predicted across the country. https://watchers.news/2017/12/01/majo…

Annual monsoon rains are causing heavy floods in parts of southern Thailand since November 25. Nearly 400 000 people are affected and at least 5 killed, authorities said. A number of provinces have declared disaster zones in various districts. The worst affected is the country’s deep south. https://watchers.news/2017/12/01/400-…

Rain records topple after Queensland’s stormy spring http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-12-02…

Vancouver had a record number of rainy days in November http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british…

$12 Billion Plan to Prevent Flooding Opposed in Congress https://www.agweb.com/article/-12-bil…

Confidence grows that extreme weather pattern will soon envelop Northern Hemisphere.

http://mashable.com/2017/11/29/extrem… h

ttp://www.hulldailymail.co.uk/news/h… h

ttp://services.swpc.noaa.gov/images/…

Agung Seismograph: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/live/sei…

Agung Livestream: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGEoo… http://services.swpc.noaa.gov/images/…

The K7RA Solar Update:

http://www.arrl.org/news/the-k7ra-sol…

https://www.theverge.com/2017/12/1/16…

https://www.climaterealityproject.org…

Mass of warm rock is rising beneath New England https://watchers.news/2017/12/02/mass…

Geomagnetic Storm Risk (Central Intelligence Agency) https://www.muckrock.com/foi/united-s…

http://www.bartol.udel.edu/~takao/ice…

http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/~pyle…

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Mt Rainier Volcano is beginning to RUMBLE – Seismographs very active!


 

 

October 23, 2017: Mt Rainier in Washington is showing signs of increased activity. Seismographs on the north side of the 14,000ft volcano show tons of activity. http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-09… #MrMBB333 SUBSCRIBE for UPDATES

GSM Update 10/24/17 – Explosion at Stromboli – 9.0 Cascadia Simulation – Record Rainfall & Flooding


 

 

 

 
One of the worst nightmares for many Pacific Northwest residents is a huge earthquake along the offshore Cascadia Subduction Zone, which would unleash damaging and likely deadly shaking in coastal Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and northern California. The last time this happened was in 1700, before seismic instruments were around to record the event. So what will happen when it ruptures next is largely unknown. A University of Washington research project, to be presented October 24 at the Geological Society of America’s annual meeting in Seattle, simulates 50 different ways that a magnitude-9.0 earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone could unfold. “There had been just a handful of detailed simulations of a magnitude-9 Cascadia earthquake, and it was hard to know if they were showing the full range,” said Erin Wirth, who led the project as a UW postdoctoral researcher in Earth and space sciences. “With just a few simulations you didn’t know if you were seeing a best-case, a worst-case or an average scenario. This project has really allowed us to be more confident in saying that we’re seeing the full range of possibilities.” Have a look at the simulated ground motions and seismometer readings in four cities for the scenario that generated the most shaking in Seattle. In this scenario, the hypocenter was far away, but the rupture spread inland and up the coast, causing waves to pile up toward Seattle. https://watchers.news/2017/10/23/50-s… https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_li…
NOAA PREDICTS ITS THIRD WARM WINTER IN A ROW – Holding the forecasters accountable: https://youtu.be/fYCUWF3QwLc
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GSM Update 10/22/17 – Tinakula, Ebeko & Dukono Erupt – Record Rain Portland & India – Food Inflation


 

 

 

After more than 5 years of quiescence, a powerful eruption started at Tinakula volcano, Temoto Province, Solomon Islands at 19:20 UTC on October 20, 2017. A second eruption was registered at 23:40 UTC. Heavy ashfall was reported on nearby islands. According to the Wellington VAAC, ash cloud was observed reaching an altitude of 35 000 feet (10.7 km) above sea level at 01:10 UTC on October 21, drifting east. Authorities in the Solomon Islands are trying to work out if there’s been any damage after a remote volcano erupted early this morning, Radio New Zealand reported. Villages on nearby islands have reported heavy ashfall. https://watchers.news/2017/10/21/tina… https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volc… https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/duko… https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/ebek… https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebeko https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinakula https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of… PORTLAND, Ore. – The Portland International Airport measured record setting daily rainfall Saturday afternoon, and more rain is on the way. According to the National Weather Service in Portland, the previous record was 1.10 inches and it was set in 1951. http://katu.com/news/local/portland-a… https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/c… http://www.thehindu.com/news/national… https://www.theguardian.com/world/vid… http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/na… http://www.thedailystar.net/business/… http://deathrattlesports.com/growers-… Please Visit Our Facebook Resources: Solar Shutdown: https://www.facebook.com/SolarShutdown/ Comet C/2017 K2 – Panstarrs: https://www.facebook.com/OppenheimerR… Plasma Geology: https://www.facebook.com/Plasma-Geolo… Oppenheimer Ranch Project: An experiment in high alpine sustainability. https://www.facebook.com/oppenheimerr… Please SUBSCRIBE to our channel if you enjoyed the content. Share this video with like-minded individuals.

Scientists can’t explain why a giant hole the size of Maine just opened up in Antarctica October 10, 2017


 Note: A major volcanic eruption or geothermal activity in the ocean could be related to this phenomenon.

Mario Tama/Getty Images

A mysterious hole the size of Maine has opened up in Antarctica, stumping scientists who have no clue how it formed, Motherboard reports. “It looks like you just punched a hole in the ice,” explained University of Toronto Mississauga professor Kent Moore.

Called a “polynya” — an area of open ocean water in the midst of ice — the spot was first observed in the same location in the 1970s, but scientists at the time were limited in their ability to study it. “At that time, the scientific community had just launched the first satellites that provided images of the sea-ice cover from space. On-site measurements in the Southern Ocean still require enormous efforts, so they are quite limited,” Dr. Torge Martin told Phys.org.

Last year, the hole mysteriously opened up again for a few weeks. The 2017 polynya, which is larger than the Netherlands and opened in early September, marks “the second year in a row it’s opened after 40 years of not being there,” Moore said.

Blaming climate change is “premature,” Moore cautioned, adding that his team is working to publish their research on why the hole has appeared again. That being said, Martin added: “For us this ice-free area is an important new data point which we can use to validate our climate models. Its occurrence after several decades also confirms our previous calculations.” Read more about the polynya at Motherboard and Phys.org. Jeva Lange

http://theweek.com/speedreads/730096/scientists-cant-explain-why-giant-hole-size-maine-just-opened-antarctica

A gigantic hole in Antarctica leaves unexplained scientist

Earthquake swarm detected under Cumbre Vieja volcano, Canary Islands


 

A seismic swarm started under Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma) in the Canary Islands on Saturday, October 7, 2017. Authorities said they will increase monitoring the volcano starting October 10 and assign 5 scientists to keep track of the earthquakes. The last eruptive phase of this volcano started on October 26, 1971 and ended on November 18 (VEI 2). 

The new, 24-hour monitoring network of the National Geographic Institute (IGN) has recorded a total of 68 earthquakes under the volcano since October 7 with magnitudes from 1.5 to 2.7 on the Richter scale.

The largest earthquake so far was M2.7 at 11:03 UTC on October 7 at a depth of 28 km (17.4 miles). The second largest was M2.6 at 23:23 UTC on October 7.

Seismic swarm under Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma), Canary Islands

Seismic swarm under Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma), Canary Islands – October 7 – 9, 2017. Credit: IGN

María José Blanco, IGN Canary Islands director, said the agency will start increasing the number of seismic stations starting October 10 and intensify geochemical measures. In addition, 5 scientists will be assigned to keep track of the earthquakes.

“While the earthquakes are not usual, the current seismic swarm is not anomalous,” Blanco said. “We have never recorded a similar swarm, and although it has very low energy and is very deep, it is different from the seismic activity recorded so far.”

Nemesio Pérez of the Volcanology Institute of Canary Islands (INVOLCAN) said seismic swarms like this one are absolutely normal for active volcanos. “On the other hand, this type of process does not occur every year in Cumbre Vieja and it has to be followed up and it is necessary to evaluate its evolution, especially since the volcano had a kind of significant seismic calm in the past years.

La Palma, Canary Islands

La Palma, Canary Islands. Credit: CEDIDA

“Our experience with the study of diffuse emanations of carbon dioxide in active volcanic systems, as well as that of other colleagues who are experts in this field, tells us that significant changes in the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide can be detected or recorded for months and even years before active volcanoes can undergo a volcanic reactivation process,” Pérez said.

“As a closer example we could mention the case of the recent process of volcanic reactivation of El Hierro, which ended with a volcanic eruption in October 2011 (not all reactivations end in eruptions), and where there were changes in diffuse emission of dioxide already in 2004 and 2006; a few years before the eruption of El Hierro in 2011.

“In the case of Cumbre Vieja, our research group has been monitoring this important parameter for volcanic monitoring for 20 years, and during the scientific campaigns of 2011 and 2013 we detected significant changes in the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide in Cumbre Vieja, reaching records that exceeded 1 500 tons per day (values above the average value for Cumbre Vieja, which is of the order of 374 tons per day, as well as above the range of the background values for Cumbre Vieja estimated between 132 and 1,254 tonnes per day).

“These significant changes in the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide in Cumbre Vieja as a consequence of magma fluid injection processes are also strongly supported by the changes in the emission of helium-3 in La Palma, which confirm this observation. Therefore, we could venture to say that the recent seismic swarm that has been recorded in La Palma is a process that could be considered as expected in Cumbre Vieja since it is an active volcano that has previously experienced significant changes in the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide.”

Cumbre Vieja volcano, Canary Islands

Cumbre Vieja volcano, Canary Islands. Credit: Diario de Avisos

For Diario de Avisos, Pérez said that, with the data available at the present, we are likely not at the prelude of a new eruptive process in Cumbra Vieja whose last volcanic eruption took place in 1971.

The 1971 eruption started at the southern end of the Cumbre Vieja at the Teneguía vent on October 26. The eruption was mainly strombolian in style but had several lava flows. Seismic activity did occur before and during the 1971 eruption but was not on the scale associated with the 1949 eruption.

Geological summary

The 47-km-long (29 miles) wedge-shaped island of La Palma, the NW-most of the Canary Islands, is composed of two large volcanic centers. The older northern one is cut by the massive steep-walled Caldera Taburiente, one of several massive collapse scarps produced by edifice failure to the SW.

The younger Cumbre Vieja, the southern volcano, is one of the most active in the Canaries. The elongated volcano dates back to about 125 000 years ago and is oriented N-S. Eruptions during the past 7 000 years have originated from the abundant cinder cones and craters along the axis of Cumbre Vieja, producing fissure-fed lava flows that descend steeply to the sea.

Historical eruptions at La Palma, recorded since the 15th century, have produced mild explosive activity and lava flows that damaged populated areas. The southern tip of the island is mantled by a broad lava field produced during the 1677-1678 eruption. Lava flows also reached the sea in 1585, 1646, 1712, 1949, and 1971. (GVP)

Featured image: Cumbre Vieja volcano on La Palma island, Canary Islands, Spain. Credit: CEDIDA

The worlds most remote inhabited volcanic island is stirring! | “da Cunha” ~ MrMBB333



June 18, 2017: The most recent seismogram activity at Tristan da Cunha, the worlds most remote inhabited island, is showing signatures of magma intrusion. This island is comprised of basically one volcano thousands of miles from any mainland. It erupted and was evacuated a little over 50 years ago.

https://earthquake.usgs.gov/static/ea…

http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/most-r…
#MrMBB333

Life on Tristan da Cunha – the World’s Most Remote Inhabited Island

Watch the three-part Britain’s Treasure Islands documentary series on BBC FOUR, starting Tue 12 Apr 2016 21:00. (repeated Wed 13 Apr 2016 20:00).

This mini-documentary follows Stewart McPherson’s journey to Tristan da Cunha, the most remote inhabited island in the world. We meet the Tristanians and an interview with ex-chief islander Harold Green reveals what life is like in Tristan’s only settlement, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas.

http://www.BritainsTreasureIslands.com

SOTT Earth Changes Summary – February 2017: Extreme Weather, Planetary Upheaval, Meteor Fireballs


SOTT ‘Earth Changes’ video summary for February 2017: extreme weather events, environmental indicators of ‘planetary upheaval’ (seismic, volcanic, etc) and Near-Earth Objects in the form of meteor fireballs.

Februrary 2017 continued on as January started. Massive flooding in California due to “atmospheric rivers” dumping large amounts of rain on coastal areas and snow on the Sierra Nevada. The snow melt from this caused further flooding in Nevada. Eastern Canada also experienced record snowfall, as did Iran, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and Japan.

Wildfires broke out in Eastern Australia and New Zealand while record rainfall inundated Western Australia. Major flooding also hit several South American nations including Chile, Peru and Colombia.

There are at least 30 active volcanoes around the world right now, including a really impressive one in Guatemala. Massive earth cracks opened in Pakistan and Italy.

These are just some of the chaotic events we present in this month’s Sott ‘Earth Changes’ video compilation.

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Music used: ‘Escape from the Temple’ by Per Kiilstofte: http://www.machinimasound.com/music/e…

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One of the greatest mass extinctions caused by volcanic eruptions


Note: On my timeline, scientists knew volcanic eruptions s caused one of the greatest mass extinctions in Earth’s history. Is this another Mandela Effect, or did the article omit other extinction phases where volcanic eruptions caused ELE’s? Blessings, {~A~}

One of the greatest mass extinctions caused by volcanic eruptions

Scientists have linked global mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary some 250 million years ago to an ice age caused by the activity of the first volcanism in the Siberian Traps. The research paves the way for a new vision of the Earth’s climate history.

The Earth has known several mass extinctions over the course of its history and one of the most important happened at the Permian-Triassic boundary 250 million years ago when over 95% of marine species disappeared. Up until now, scientists have linked this extinction to a significant rise in Earth temperatures, but researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, working alongside the University of Zurich, discovered that this extinction took place during a short ice age which preceded the global climate warming.

It’s the first time that the various stages of a mass extinction have been accurately understood and that scientists have been able to assess the major role played by volcanic explosions in these climate processes. This research, which can be read in Scientific Reports, completely calls into question the scientific theories regarding these phenomena, founded on the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere, and paves the way for a new vision of the Earth’s climate history.

Teams of researchers led by Professor Urs Schaltegger from the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the Faculty of Science of the UNIGE and by Hugo Bucher, from the University of Zürich, have been working on absolute dating for many years. They work on determining the age of minerals in volcanic ash, which establishes a precise and detailed chronology of the earth’s climate evolution.

They became interested in the Permian-Triassic boundary, 250 million years ago, during which one of the greatest mass extinctions ever took place, responsible for the loss of 95% of marine species. How did this happen? For how long marine biodiversity stayed at very low levels?

A technique founded on the radioactive decay of uranium

Researchers worked on sediment layers in the Nanpanjiang basin in southern China. They have the particularity of being extremely well preserved, which allowed for an accurate study of the biodiversity and the climate history of the Permian and the Triassic.

“We made several cross-sections of hundreds of meters of basin sediments and we determined the exact positions of ash beds contained in these marine sediments,” explained Björn Baresel, first author of the study.

They then applied a precise dating technique based on natural radioactive decay of uranium, as Urs Schaltegger added: “In the sedimentary cross-sections, we found layers of volcanic ash containing the mineral zircon which incorporates uranium. It has the specificity of decaying into lead over time at a well-known speed. This is why, by measuring the concentrations of uranium and lead, it was possible for us to date a sediment layer to an accuracy of 35 000 years, which is already fairly precise for periods over 250 million years.”

Ice is responsible for mass extinction

By dating the various sediment layers, researchers realized that the mass extinction of the Permian-Triassic boundary is represented by a gap in sedimentation, which corresponds to a period when the sea-water level decreased.

The only explanation to this phenomenon is that there was ice, which stored water, and that this ice age which lasted 80 000 years was sufficient to eliminate much of marine life. Scientists from the UNIGE explain the global temperature drop by a stratospheric injection of large amounts of sulphur dioxide reducing the intensity of solar radiation reaching the surface of the earth.

“We therefore have proof that the species disappeared during an ice age caused by the activity of the first volcanism in the Siberian Traps,” added Urs Schaltegger. This ice age was followed by the formation of limestone deposits through bacteria, marking the return of life on Earth at more moderate temperatures.

The period of intense climate warming, related to the emplacement of large amounts of basalt of the Siberian Traps and which we previously thought was responsible for the extinction of marine species, in fact, happened 500 000 years after the Permian-Triassic boundary.

This study, therefore shows that climate warming is not the only explanation of global ecological disasters in the past on Earth: it is important to continue analyzing ancient marine sediments to gain a deeper understanding of the Earth’s climate system.

Source: Universite de Geneve

Featured image: Puyehue Cordón Caulle eruption in 2011. Credit: EPA

https://watchers.news/2017/03/06/volcanic-eruptions-ice-age-extinction-study/

HAWAII: Lava Fire Hose Continues As Surface Flows Crawl Downslope (Feb. 26, 2017)


Note: Pele’s alive and well on the Big Island, this amazing event is happening just 20 miles south of my home.

Lava flow is how new land is created for future generations to survive and thrive 🙂

HAWAII’S EXPLOSIVE NEW YEAR: Electric Sky Anomaly, Massive Delta Collapse and Exploding Lava


Note: In addition to the magnificent ascension energy’s pummeling the Hawaiian islands, the New Year has heralded some interesting events on land, water and the skies! 2017 is already proving to be an interesting ride….stay buckled-up and keep hands & feet in the car, there may be some turbulence ahead as we forge into untraversed waters. Blessings for you and yours in 2017! Much love to ALL, {~A~}

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‘Electric Sky Anomaly’ over Hawaii | Electromagnetic pulse?
January 2, 2017: Really bizarre moment captured on camera over the Pacific Ocean in the sky near Hawaii. Have never seen anything like it and leave it entirely up to you to interpret however you wish…

Huge Lava Delta Collapse In Hawaii (Dec. 31, 2016)
Video courtesy the National Park Service

Exploding Lava At Hawaii Ocean Entry (Jan. 2, 2017)
Video courtesy Epic Lava Tours

04 Aug 2016 | 3 Indonesian volcanoes erupt, disrupting some flights #Sinabung #Rinjani #Gamalama


Sinabung volcano on Sumatra Island and Mount Gamalama in the Moluccas chain of islands have both erupted in the past couple of days, along with Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island near Bali.
http://en.alalam.ir/news/1846641

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