Ua Mau Ke Ea, Sovereignty Endures: An Overview of the Political and Legal History of the Hawaiian Islands by David Keanu Sai (review)



From: The Contemporary Pacific
Volume 25, Number 1, Spring 2013
pp. 210-212 | 10.1353/cp.2013.0011

In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

David Keanu Sai’s recent Ua Mau Ke Ea: Sovereignty Endures argues that the United States has been illegally occupying Hawai’i since 1898. Sai contends that, though the United States has treated Hawai’i as the fiftieth state, the Hawaiian Islands, having been recognized as an independent state in 1843 by Britain and France and by a host of other countries thereafter, never had a ratified treaty merging this island nation with the United States. The first text for high school and college students to address Hawai’i’s legal status under US occupation, Ua Mau Ke Ea, with its accompanying CD of documents and a documentary directed by Kau’i Sai-Dudoit, offers a trove of information regarding the US occupation of Hawai’i and asks students to reexamine the colonization rubric as it has been applied to Hawai’i, affirming that despite the United States’ illegal occupation, Hawai’i’s sovereignty endures.


With an implicit awareness that young minds are key to ending the US occupation, Sai’s work demonstrates how Hawaiian history has shifted in recent years toward more precise discourse on the US occupation. In the past decade, the discourse has evolved from Noenoe Silva’s Aloha Betrayed (2004), which described Hawai’i as a “(neo) colonial state” under “continued occupation . . . by the United States” (2004, 9), to Tom Coffman’s revised edition of Nation Within: The History of the American Occupation of Hawai’i (2009), which acknowledged “a growing body of historical work by a new generation of Native Hawaiian scholars” writing about the US occupation of Hawai’i (2009, xvi). Sai is the latest in this academic and popular trend, one of the emerging Native Hawaiian voices contributing to this shift from “colonization” and “annexation” to “occupation” as the legal and political term to describe Hawai’i.


Sai distinguishes colonization from occupation under international law, noting, “Colonization/decolonization is a matter that concerns the internal laws of the colonizing State and presumes the colony is not sovereign, while occupation/de-occupation is a matter of international law relating to already existing sovereign States” (115). Although Hawai’i has been occupied for over a century, Sai contends that the United States has treated these islands as colonized territory and that this “colonial treatment is evidence of the violation” of international law (117).


While Sai’s discussion of colonization and occupation is significant, Ua Mau Ke Ea centers on the United States’ actions toward the Hawaiian Islands in the 1890s. Unfortunately, Sai’s argument, with its focus on the Lili’uokalani Assignment and the Agreement of Restitution, ventures into legal theory that contradicts some aspects of the book’s overarching claims about the United States’ illegal occupation.


Written under duress, the Lili’uokalani Assignment was signed on 17 January 1893, hours after a band of conspirators had declared themselves the Provisional Government, and one day after 162 US sailors disembarked from the uss Boston and occupied Honolulu, Hawai’i’s capital. In this assignment, Queen Lili’uokalani wrote, “to avoid collision of armed forces, and perhaps loss of life, I do this under protest, and impelled by said force, yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon the facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representatives and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian islands” (73-74). Because this document yielded authority to the US government, Sai describes this as an assignment of executive power.


The second part of Sai’s argument about Hawai’i’s enduring sovereignty rests in his contention that the 18 December 1893 Agreement of Restitution, which held the weight of a treaty, was never fully enacted. Sai notes, “The Queen’s declaration represented the final act of negotiation and settlement of the 16 January 1893 dispute that arose between the United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom. All that remained for the President, as the assignee of executive power, was to administer Hawaiian Kingdom law, restore the Hawaiian Kingdom government and return the power to the Queen, whereupon the Queen was to grant amnesty, after the criminal convictions of the insurgents, and assume…

Freddy Silva – Ancient Sacred Sites, Giants, Our Ancestors & Places of Power ~ Red Ice Creations


August 9, 2009
Freddy Silva is one of the world’s leading researchers of ancient systems of knowledge and the interaction between temples and consciousness. He is also a best-selling author and film-maker. He lectures internationally, with keynote presentations at the International Science and Consciousness Conference, and the International Society For The Study Of Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, in addition to appearances on The History Channel, Discovery Channel, BBC, video documentaries and radio shows. In this program, Freddy joins us to discuss the ancient world, catastrophe and roots of human civilization. Later, he’ll discuss sacred sites, sacred geometry, giants, crop circles and much more. Topics Discussed: Stonehenge, Avebury, Giant’s graves, the movie Signs, crop circles, male and solar sided life, circles, Celtic culture, Roman Catholic church, spiritually fulfilled, the time we’re in right now, purpose of human life, experience and learning, our ancestors, how far back into history do you go?, 9.500 years ago, science and mysticism, underwater structures, underwater cities, Egyptians, great pyramids, age of Aquarius, 2012, return of Christ, UFO’s, C. W. Leadbeater, internal awakening, external information, awakening, collectivist society vs. individual society, sci-cop, fight about viewpoints, roots of civilization, where did our ancestors get the knowledge from?, giants, dinosaur footprints next to human footprints, civilization on Mars, Atlantis, priestly cast of people, rejuvenating civilization, Baalbek, levitation Princeton experiment, balancing Earth electro-magnetics, survival technique of a dying Earth, portals, 2012, great cycle, temple building process, laws of attempt, films on 2012 and catastrophe, Hollywood, “Knowing”, fear and much more. In our members section, Freddy discusses places of power, crop temples, sound & light. We begin talking about Catholic suppression of knowledge and the corruption and power of kings and elites. Freddy also talks about how ancient sites have been “plugged shut”. We also talk about intent as an electro-magnetic tool, alchemy, universal consciousness, and various stones that affect human consciousness. Later, Freddy discusses Freemasons, Knights Templar, the Vatican, the Watchers and the ancient Gods. Topics Discussed: ancient sites, shamans, 1600 B.C., pyramids plugged, William the Conqueror, control, empire collapse, universal faith, Roman Catholic church, Morgana, the original Freemasons, Knights Templar, kings loosing the plot, Cineon parchment, Vatican bringing in the Knights Templar again, infighting, stonemasonry as power, rocks and stones, magnetite, red granite, dolerite, blue stone, standing stone, fertility rites, Beltane 3rd of May, healing properties of stone monuments, modern buildings detrimental effect, sick buildings, iron, magnetic and human blood, entrance = entrancing, alter = alteration, nave = navis (boat), ancient technology and modern technology, use of quartz crystal in computers, Marcel Vogel at IBM, alchemy, change of ages, transhumanism, light and all understanding, reprogramming or awakening “junk DNA”, why crop temples are made, Silbury Hill, the hill of the shining beings, the EL, the Gods, the Watchers, universal consciousness, symbols to awaken us, antigravity, diesel, power and oil, hydropower cars, tetrahedron, free will, waiting to be saved, when will free energy become available?, Obama, change and fraud, cymatics, sound and the relationship to crop circles, Hans Jenny, John Reed, human body, infrasound, Ra, technology and intent.



The Reality and Suppression of Teleportation Technology, Ralph and Marsha Ring ~ GlobalBEM (**HIGHLY RECOMMENDED**)

From the GlobalBEM Conference, absolutely fascinating information on the “reality” and suppression of teleportation technology…this information WILL transform our world to a much better place once enough people awaken to “what’s possible.” The “system controllers” want to suppress this material so desperately that “word check” doesn’t even recognize the teleportation, even tho it’s commonly been used in science fiction for 60 yrs – think about it.

PLEASE share this video freely, it’s time to let the élite know their game us over and it’s time for the One People of the World to prosper and live out OUR dreams in joy, happiness and peace on Earth. Mahalo…


Blue Star Enterprise – Ralph Ring’s Website

“Ralph Ring is a brilliant innovative technician who as a young man in the late 1950s and early 1960s worked closely with Otis T. Carr. With the aid of his small team, Carr, who was himself a protegé of the great inventor Nikola Tesla, built a number of flying disks which worked… prior to their experimentation being forcibly terminated by government agents.” —from Project Camelot


Pet-Keeping and Animal Sacrifice as Seen Economically and Archaeologically


Posted by: , August 22, 2013


Pet-keeping and animal sacrifice in antiquity were common practices. How the animals were treated can often be seen archaeologically.


By most modern standards, household pets such as cats and dogs are looked at as companion animals. It can be assumed that some people in the past acquired a similar affection to household or working animals. A companion animal is generally valued as being able to bring its owner a sense of loyalty, comfort, security and friendship.


Aside from being strictly companions, pets may additionally provide a household function such as dogs providing security for the family and household and cats catch and kill small, destructive pests. Companion animals need not always be soft and cuddly housemates and dogs and cats were not the only animals valued as pets. In some medieval and post-medieval farming societies, cattle and sheep were regarded as companion animals in life but at the time of their death, they quickly were converted from pet-status to food commodity (Harris 1986, 177-178).


Historical evidence surrounding the keeping of pets clearly shows that animals were prized not only for their household duties, but some, for more non-practical reasons. Some companion animals came to symbolize the status of a person or family. Lap dogs were in fashion in the early seventeenth century, as they are today.


The tiny dogs were a sure sign of wealth and status as evident by the sheer uselessness of the dog. Lapdogs generally do not catch and kill household pests, could not secure the home of its owner or protect its family from intruders. Aside from being little more than a vocal alarm, lapdogs have virtually no other practical purpose.


In Thomas’ (1983) work, it is stated that, “The Stewarts in particular, were so obsessed with them that in 1617 James I was accused of loving his dogs more than his subjects.” Other not-so-cuddly animals were often kept as non-practical companion animals or symbols of wealth. Exotic birds and monkeys among other unusual critters within the society were also clues to the statuses of their owners. Archaeologically, trade routes and bone evidence give clues to the animals imported and exported by a community. North African tortoises were traded as far back as the seventeenth century (Thomas 2005, 101) and the acquisition or collecting of strange, unusual or non-local animals signifies the elevated status of an individual (Thomas 2005, 101).


Archaeologically, animal remains often show evidence of mistreatment, cruelty and other inhumane acts toward the animal in life. Numerous broken rib and jaw bone remains of dogs provide unmistakable evidence of abused animals. Contrasting evidence also shows animals being taken care of when wounded, or treated with respect at death. If the dog was not particularly useful during its life, one must wonder what its purpose was. Surely, a dog with an amputated leg or other deformity was not furry companion.


The zooarchaeological-economic link is revealed again through the acknowledgment of the abundance of reasons for the sacrifice of animals throughout history. Animals have been sacrificed for seemingly endless reasons. People in the past and also the present choose animals based on many factors; age, sex, size and association to a certain god or goddess are just a few.


The reasons why people sacrifice animals at all is plentiful as well. Secular, as well as non-secular reasons including honouring the dead, ensuring the continuation of life, providing good luck, enhancing fertility of people, animals as well as crops, keeping the rain god, the sun god or any number of other gods satisfied are all only a fraction of the reasons why. Reasons, whether economically charged or not; are still valid answers to the question “Why?” Zooarchaeologically, the economic, as well as the non-economic reasons can be uncovered. Lauwerier (2002) discusses the economic impact of different types of animal sacrifice.


Which is more detrimental to the economy of a society, the loss of one horse’s meat, or the loss of a few chicken’s meat? One may immediately answer with the horse meat of course, as a horse provides many hundreds of kilograms of meat where as a chicken may only offer one or two. That answer would be argued as incorrect if the society never or rarely consumes horse meat.


In Roman times, horses were used as work animals, in battle, and as transport; but, as today, horses were considered comrades (Lauwerier 2002, 70). Additionally, the consumption of horse meat might be considered taboo. Ritual consumption, however, is often the culprit for a horse or other animal ‘comrade’ to be eaten. Rituals can be economic or non-economic in nature; often they are both. Suovitaurtilia, the sacrifice of the same numbers of sheep, cattle and pigs in a single ritual, was performed either for the commemoration of the dead or to purify a field used for agricultural purposes and (Wilkens 2002, 73). The commemoration of the dead appears have no economic motive; the purification of the field before seed planting or harvest-time, most certainly does.


The keeping of pets and the sacrifice of animals adds to and often enhances the economic standing of a society whether it is intended or not. Archaeologically, these actions can be seen, establishment of the practice can be made and therefore, it can and should be examined and scrutinized.


Header Image : Preparation of an animal sacrifice; marble, fragment of an architectural relief, first quarter of the 2nd century AD; from Rome, Italy : Credit : Wiki Commons


The Silver Pharoah Mystery : Documentary³

This documentary explores the fascinating story of one of ancient Egypt’s forgotten Rulers – Pharaoh Psusennes I or as he was known at the time Akheperre Setepenamun.

Uncovered intact by Pierre Montet in 1940,the pharaoh’s mummy was encased in an extraordinary silver casket, unique in the history of Ancient Egypt.

The discovery was overshadowed by World War II, so now some historians have a bit of a muck about and take a fresh look at Psusennes’s remains in a bid to learn more about this old lad,and try to shed light on a murky period of Egyptian history.

Fun fact :- During his long reign, Psusennes I built the enclosure walls and the central part of the Great Temple at Tanis which was dedicated to the triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu.

Copyright Disclaimer – Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.


Crime and Government ~ Max Igan ~ Surviving the Matrix – August 2nd, 2013

Best Max Rant 2013..Bravo!!  Please share freely, mahalo…

Universal Law trumps all others.

1. No man or woman, in or out of government shall initiate force, threat of force or fraud against my life and property and, any and all contracts I am a party to, not giving full disclosure to me, whether signed by me or not, are void at my discretion.

2. I may use force in self-defense against anyone that violates Law 1.

3. There shall be no exceptions to Law 1 and 2.

“When the tyrant has disposed of foreign enemies by conquest or treaty and there is nothing to fear from them, then he is always stirring up some war or other, in order that the people may require a leader” – Plato


Secret Societies: The Committee of 300, The Jesuits, 13 Illuminati Papal Bloodline Families, The Corporation of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, The Federal Reserve Bank, Operation Paperclip & MK-Ultra…MUST READ

Note: This comprehensive and well researched account of America’s hidden history is a worthy read. Sadly until now, the history taught in schools and university’s was written and shaped by the winners over many generations, until recently very few people knew the truth or had the whole picture. But deep down most we all knew something wasn’t right, that somehow the human race was being led down the wrong track.

Thankfully the internet brought in to light what once was hidden in the recesses of darkness and people around the world are waking up, we’re peacefully standing in our power and reclaiming our value and sovereignty as the powerful creators we have always been. We now remember that WE are ALL equal Embodiments of the Creator, absent all limits. We’re peacefully taking back our world and removing all limitations placed on our free will by systems of domination and control.

All debt slavery imposed on us by banks and trans-global corporations, the  kangaroo courts, military, the police state, social engineering/indoctrination, mass media and especially the U.S corporation masquerading as government. We’re fed up with lies, corruption, GMO’s, toxic food supply, police brutality, criminalization of the citizenry by a police state, surveillance, health tyranny by bigpharma/FDA/USDA, the EPA allowing environmental destruction, information war, drug wars, bankers military wars, poverty and the psychopathy inherent in pervasive corruption.

It’s time for all politicians and court officials to resign, a restructuring of the banking system restructured, banksters and corporate management held accountable for crimes against humanity in Common Law courts. All military personnel and defense budgets will be used for cleaning up the environment and helping to enrich impoverished Americans, eliminating global poverty and dismantling nuclear power plants. The global power industry to be employed in manufacturing and installing free energy devices for every home and business around the world. All fossil and nuclear fuels will be banned when alternatives are in place for transportation and energy production. And much more…We don’t seek revenge and are thankful for the part you played in helping us remember, without the pain, suffering and despair we might have stayed blissfully ignorant of our connection to Source and our power to Co-create a better world community and build a New Earth as One People.

Out with the old paradigm to bring in a new way of living that empowers every living soul and all of Earth’s creations….this pivotal moment in history was decreed thousands of years ago, in many ancient texts. The ruling bloodlines and those that rule them, have known this time was coming since the beginning of the Earth experiment. They forgot they were playing a role and are acting like Frat boys on crack 30 minutes after smoking the last rock.

They’re broke and desperate to keep smoking so they’ll do anything, even something stupid to keep the party going. so we’re liable to see some obvious screw-ups as they attempt to create more chaos, as they simultaneously cannibalize themselves, They safest way to enjoy the show will be to stay grounded, centered and observe from a neutral and protected sacred space.  It’s times like this I’m eternally grateful for the Divine Plan and in knowing we’re not alone…and never have been.


In 1913, during the opening year of Wilson’s eight year run as president, he made a statement that should be seen as a major hint in regards to what was really going on beneath the surface:

“Since I entered politics, I have chiefly had men’s views confided to me privately.  Some of the biggest men in the United States in the fields of commerce and manufacturing are afraid of somebody.  They know that there is a power somewhere so organized, so subtle, so watchful, so interlocked, so complete, so pervasive, that they had better not speak above their breath when they speak in condemnation of it.

Part I:  Secret Societies

The Committee of 300, The Jesuits, 13 Illuminati Papal Bloodline Families, The Corporation of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, The Federal Reserve Bank, Operation Paperclip & MK-Ultra

In order to gain an understanding of why the world finds itself in such upheaval, we must begin by going back in history to unearth the roots of this problem, and to clearly show that history has not been a random series of events, but rather a carefully planned and executed ‘design’ of land, wealth, and resource grabbing by a small number of wealthy and privileged individuals bent on world domination.  This has been done on such a massive scale that it seems almost incomprehensible, but as the old saying goes, “The best kept secrets are the ones hidden in plain sight.”  We must begin by going back to the early part of the 17th century, to the formation of a company that would eventually become the ruling elite and, ultimately, the engineers of history.

1600 – The East India Company

In the year 1600, Queen Elizabeth I presented a charter to the East India Company.  History tells us that their goal was to establish trade relations with the Eastern world, namely India and China.  Officially, its business was trading in tea.  While this is certainly true, there is a much darker side to the story.  The true goals of this company were two-fold:  To study the banking and financial systems of the Eastern world, (namely India) for eventual manipulation, and to introduce opium to the Far East.  It is through the latter of these two that the East India Company was able to amass massive amounts of wealth that was stored in royal coffers.
The way in which this opium trade began was through the growing of prime opium poppies in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (also referred to as Kew Gardens), in London.  These were then shipped to India, where the British began growing vast plantations of opium-producing poppies.  From there, the poppies were transported in the form of raw opium, via English Tea Clipper ships, to China, where they were sold to the Chinese people.  For many decades, this opium trade continued uninterrupted, and two main things occurred as a result of it:  1. The East India Company made a fortune selling these vast amounts of opium and 2. The Chinese nation became a nation of addicts, with many millions of people becoming addicted to opium and thereby halting progress to the build-up of the infrastructure of China.  The ruling body of the East India Company was known as The Council of 300, yet as the opium trade began to grow and become more lucrative, pulling in massive amounts of wealth, the British monarchy merged with the company, and from this emerged a group that has to this very day referred to themselves as The Committee of 300.
Dr. John Coleman, an alleged former MI6 (British Military Intelligence Division 6) secret service agent with top level security clearance to the upper echelon of the workings of the British aristocracy, has made it his life’s work to ‘rip the mask off’ the hidden agendas of this organization.  Doctor Coleman is a best-selling author who has written many books and monograms on the subject, the magnum opus of which is entitled Conspirator’s Hierarchy:  The Committee of 300.  Dr. Coleman spent five years burying himself in the ancient records and manuscripts held in the British Museum in London.  Essentially, what Doctor Coleman (and others) tell us is that everything we have ever heard about the existence of secret societies, of hidden groups that are based upon the succession of bloodlines, are true.  It is no secret that the British monarchy themselves have been practicing this type of ‘aristocratic inbreeding’ for centuries.  In recent years, names such as The Illuminati, The Priory of Scion, The Free Masons, The Knight’s Templar, Skull and Bones and others have been bandied around.  But what most people do not realize is that these societies are real, and their true intentions have remained hidden in utmost secrecy for centuries.
In his aforementioned book, Coleman describes the Committee of 300 in the following manner:

“The Committee of 300 is a product of the British East India Company’s Council of 300.  The East India Company was chartered by the British royal family in 1600.  It made vast fortunes in the opium drug trade with China and became the largest company on earth in its time.  Today, through many powerful alliances, the Committee of 300 rules the world and is the driving force behind the criminal agenda to create a “New World Order”, under a “Totalitarian Global Government”.  There is no need to use “they” or “the enemy” except as shorthand.  We know who “they”, the enemy, is.  The Committee of 300 with its “aristocracy”, its ownership of the U.S. Federal Reserve banking system, insurance companies, giant corporations, foundations, communications networks, presided over by a hierarchy of conspirators.  This is the enemy.

Secret societies exist by deception.  Each is a hierarchy with an inner circle at the top, who deceives those below with lies, such as claiming a noble agenda; thus, duping them into following a web of compartmentalized complicity.  The inner circle of the Committee of 300 is the Order of the Garter, headed by Queen Elizabeth Windsor II.  The enemy is clearly identifiable as the Committee of 300 and its front organizations, such as the Royal Institute for International Affairs (Chatham House), the Club of Rome, NATO, U.N., the Black Nobility, the Tavistock Institute, CFR and all its affiliated organizations, the think tanks and research institutions controlled by Stanford and the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations and last, but certainly not least, the military establishment.

The Committee of 300 is the ultimate secret society made up of an untouchable ruling class, which includes the Queen of the United Kingdom (Elizabeth II), the Queen of the Netherlands (this would be Queen Beatrix whom, as we shall see later, has been photographed attending meetings of another ultra-secret society called The Bilderberg Group), the Queen of Denmark and the royal families of Europe.  These aristocrats decided at the death of Queen Victoria, the matriarch of the Venetian Black Guelphs that, in order to gain world-wide control, it would be necessary for its aristocratic members to “go into business” with the non-aristocratic but extremely powerful leaders of corporate business on a global scale, and so the doors to ultimate power were opened to what the Queen of England likes to refer to as “the commoners”.  Through their illicit banking cartel, they own the stock of the Federal Reserve, which is a private for-profit corporation that violates U.S. Constitution and is a ROOT of the problem.”

Click HERE to watch a lecture given by Dr. Coleman regarding The Committee of 300.

**Note:  The origin of the Committee of 300 is comprised of a much deeper history that spans nearly a thousand years dating back to the time of the crusades.  Out of the ashes of these brutal wars rose the line of families known as the Guelphs or the Venetian Black Nobility, who have themselves warred endlessly with the Ghibelline line of succession from Florence.  In the modern age, the descendants of these people (the Venetian Black Nobility) represent the most powerful and influential individuals on the planet.  They have wealth which dates back many centuries.  If one wishes to truly understand who it is exactly that hides behind the curtain and wields ultimate power, one must look towards the descendants of the families of Venice, Genoa, and other parts of Italy, as well as the royal family of England.  Yet above these entities stands an even far more powerful group:  The Jesuits, i.e. the Society of Jesus, led by the Black Pope, the Jesuit General Adolfo Nicolas, who wields complete power over the Vatican and the currently sitting White Pope Benedict XVI.  At the very top of the pyramid of power reside the most powerful entities of all, the ultimate shadow masters:  The 13 Ptolemaic Papal Bloodlines, which include the following families:

House of Borja
House of Breakspear
House of Somaglia
House of Orsini
House of Conti
House of Chigi
House of Colonna
House of Farnese
House of Medici
House of Gaetani
House of Pamphili
House of Este
House of Aldobrandini

As of the time of this writing, two men in particular hold ultimate sway over these families:  Pepe Orsini of Rome and Henry Breakspear of Macau and China, with Orsini being the absolute head and one of the most powerful individuals on the planet.  Nothing happens in the world without the consent of these 13 families.  One other group also deserves mention as holding incredible levels of power and influence amongst this web of ancient and secretive societies:  The P2 Masonic Lodge in Monte Carlo, formerly Italy (P2 stands for ‘Propaganda Due’ in Italian).  The banking families of today, including the Rothschild clan of England and the Rockefeller family, as well as the Royal families of Europe, are subordinate to these shadow masters of the Vatican.  The Papal families listed above have a history which dates back thousands of years to the time of ancient Babylon, and in the modern age, they are the one’s of whom people are speaking when they refer to ‘The Illuminati’ (though the Illuminati is, to an extent, a separate entity unto itself, having been founded in 1776 in Bavaria by Adam Weishaupt per the order of the Jesuits).  Essentially, these families, along with the Jesuits and those within the P2 Masonic Lodge, consider themselves to be the ‘Illumined ones’ or the ‘keepers of the secrets of the ages’.  They have wealth which stretches into the trillions of dollars.  Throughout the course of the 20th and the 21st centuries, it has been the manipulation of the global financial system that has allowed these entities to continue to rule as tyrants and shadow masters.  READ MORE


The NSA ~ Mankinds Greatest Enemy ~ Max Igan

Max Igan – Surviving the Matrix – June 28th, 2013

Universal Law trumps all others.

1. No man or woman, in or out of government shall initiate force, threat of force or fraud against my life and property and, any and all contracts I am a party to, not giving full disclosure to me, whether signed by me or not, are void at my discretion.

2. I may use force in self-defense against anyone that violates Law 1.

3. There shall be no exceptions to Law 1 and 2.

“When the tyrant has disposed of foreign enemies by conquest or treaty and there is nothing to fear from them, then he is always stirring up some war or other, in order that the people may require a leader” – Plato


Vortex’s, Electric, Alchemy, Lightening, Teachings, Past lives, History…

This is a playlist of short video’s on the above name or description was included with the videos.

Danny Vendramini ~ Them & Us: Neanderthal Predation Theory ~ Red Ice Creations

May 12, 2013
Danny Vendramini is a theoretical biologist, specializing in the evolution of behavior and human origins. He is the author of Them and Us: How Neanderthal predation created modern humans. Danny is also a member of the Independent Scholars Association of Australia Inc. He joins us to discuss his theory of human origins. He begins with a reassessment of Neanderthal behavioral ecology. He’ll explain Neanderthal Predation (NP) theory revealing that Neanderthals were ‘apex’ predators who resided at the top of the food chain and everything, including humans was their prey. Danny explains how Neanderthals are the origins of our deep source of fear. Vendramini suggests that Eurasian Neanderthals abducted, raped and interbred with early humans in the Middle East producing hybrids. We’ll discuss sexual predation, the most important aspect of his theory, when mating drastically changed bringing forth romantic love. He also explains how Neanderthals jump started our evolution into the modern human. In the second hour we’ll speak more on the disappearance of the Neanderthal from the historical record. Danny continues on selection pressure for strategic adaptations, including cognitive ability, male aggression, language capacity, gender roles and creativity. We end the hour on the sad consequences of predation, deeply engrained into our consciousness. He explains how awareness is fundamental.


How to Steal the World ~ Max Igan

Published on May 10, 2013

thecrowhouse thecrowhouse

Max Igan – Surviving the Matrix – May 10th, 2013

Universal Law trumps all others.

1. No man or woman, in or out of government shall initiate force, threat of force or fraud against my life and property and, any and all contracts I am a party to, not giving full disclosure to me, whether signed by me or not, are void at my discretion.

2. I may use force in self-defense against anyone that violates Law 1.

3. There shall be no exceptions to Law 1 and 2.

“When the tyrant has disposed of foreign enemies by conquest or treaty and there is nothing to fear from them, then he is always stirring up some war or other, in order that the people may require a leader” – Plato


Cultivating the Social Pathogen ~ Max Igan

Published on Apr 26, 2013

thecrowhouse thecrowhouse

Max Igan – Surviving the Matrix – April 26th, 2013

Universal Law trumps all others.

1. No man or woman, in or out of government shall initiate force, threat of force or fraud against my life and property and, any and all contracts I am a party to, not giving full disclosure to me, whether signed by me or not, are void at my discretion.

2. I may use force in self-defense against anyone that violates Law 1.

3. There shall be no exceptions to Law 1 and 2.

“When the tyrant has disposed of foreign enemies by conquest or treaty and there is nothing to fear from them, then he is always stirring up some war or other, in order that the people may require a leader” – Plato


Max Igan ~ Be Active or Abdicate, The Future is in Your Hands

Published on Apr 5, 2013


Max Igan – Surviving the Matrix – April 5th, 2013

Universal Law trumps all others.

1. No man or woman, in or out of government shall initiate force, threat of force or fraud against my life and property and, any and all contracts I am a party to, not giving full disclosure to me, whether signed by me or not, are void at my discretion.

2. I may use force in self-defense against anyone that violates Law 1.

3. There shall be no exceptions to Law 1 and 2.

“When the tyrant has disposed of foreign enemies by conquest or treaty and there is nothing to fear from them, then he is always stirring up some war or other, in order that the people may require a leader” – Plato



Egyptians in Australia Part 1 – Steven Strong

This is a six part series, if part 2-6 don’t cue up here’s a link to her page. Part 3 is MIA from the channel page, thank you Karina for dropping it into the comment box so I could post it below.

Published on Sep 20, 2012


Egyptians in Australia-Part 1, looks at the sensational and hotly debated set of close to 300 hieroglyphs found at Kariong 9near Gosford). We examine evidence of an ancient Egyptian presence over 4,500 years ago and the real possibility there is an even more ancient narrative engraved by either ancient original people and/or extra-terrestrial settlers.

Part 3

Papal Prophecy Looms Over the Vatican as a Dark Cloud

Susan Rennison posted loads of information on the Pope’s resignation and papal prophecy, which is covered here in the next two posts. She’s far more of an expert on this subject than I am, so I’ll let her take the lead on the latest developments within the Vatican.
A sign from above? Lightning strikes Vatican hours after Pope’s shock resignation
The lightning touched the roof of St. Peter’s Basilica, one of the holiest Catholic churches, hours after Benedict XVI’s shock announcement
The Mirror, 11th February 2013
This was the moment lightning struck the Vatican today – hours after Pope Benedict XVI’s bolt-from-the-blue resignation.

The lightning touched the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica, one of the holiest Catholic churches, after the Pope’s shock admission he lacks strength to do the job.

The Vatican stressed that no specific medical condition prompted Benedict’s decision to quit – the first pontiff to do so in 600 years.

I am sure this will be taken seriously as another sign of doom for the Catholic Church. Well, I think it is worth adding a reminder for those who are unfamiliar with my work and who don’t realise the significance of the sheenanigans in the Catholic Church. Briefly, various prophecies over centuries have all declared the Catholic Church will be finished at the End of the Age or when the Holy Spirit arrives to “judge” humanity, but the Church has already been warned they are going to get their own select destruction. For those who are new to my research and beliefs I will repeat a general principle that I think explains the fear about human destruction. From my new FAQ page:

The influx of cosmic energy seems to have a function of re-balancing human consciousness and behaviour. This can be compared to the discoveries made by ecologists and biologists where during periods of evolutionary change, any negative and malignant force that has sprung up and poses a threat to a harmonious ecosystem, becomes subject to elimination. Simply, at times of great environmental stress, the agents of stress are eliminated to restore balance. This is well explained by biologist Bruce Lipton during an interview with Laura Lee in 2004, where Lipton explains new scientific evidence provided in the journal Nature, suggests that Darwin was wrong and it is not survival of the fittest, it is what the community of organisms contribute to a well functioning ecosystem environment that matters. Lipton states that, “evolution is selected by complementarity to the environment, organisms that push the environment to extremes are ultimately eliminated from the environment”. So, what humanity fails to comprehend is that this seems to apply on a planet-wide scale. Today it is recognised that humans are having a negative impact on this planet, but traditionally, the threat of judgement by a deity for human indiscretions in general, was used by religious leaders to help apply control over other humans, it was not necessarily about encouraging higher levels of consciousness. FAQ: What is the “Planetary Refresh” and what does it have to do with Space Weather?

We will not even bother going into the indiscretions of the Catholic Church but the abuse of their position over the centuries has been well documented. The Vatican know that they are top on the list for a removal because they have been told over and over again over by various prophets. So, this takes me to my Planetary Challenges report and someone at the White House who writes speeches, annoying the Vatican by pointing out the fact that their time is nearly up… There was nothing subtle about pointing out the beliefs of a Gioacchino da Fiore, or Joachim of Fiore (1135 – 1202). This is the relevant quote:

Finally on a more philosophical note, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the Obama Administration have already made the connection between “planetary challenges” and the arrival of a New World Age. In this regard, it is has been widely reported that in March 2009, Father Raniero Cantalamessa, (preacher to the Pontifical Household), put out a curious statement highlighting the displeasure of the Vatican, that President Obama had positively referenced a heretic three times during his presidential electioneering campaign. President Obama is accused of claiming to be inspired by Gioacchino da Fiore, or Joachim of Fiore (1135 – 1202), an Italian mystic, theologian, and philosopher of history, who Obama referred to as a “master of contemporary civilisation” and “inspiring a better world”. F12 The intrigue is that Gioacchino is remembered for his scholarly treatises that were unified by their apocalyptic tenor. F13 Interestingly, from his study of the Bible, specifically the book of Revelations and ancient esoteric knowledge, Gioacchino believed that there would come an apocalyptic crisis and a “New Age of the Holy Spirit” where the church would not be required and mankind would reach a higher level of spiritual understanding. It is the belief of the author and outlined in this Citizen Summary, that we are fast approaching a ‘New World Age’ dominated by Space Weather as denoted by the scientific community or ‘The Holy Spirit’ in Christian terms. What’s more, it is impossible to believe that this is not understood by the Vatican Church who possesses the biggest esoteric and historical archives in the world.

Source: Planetary Challenges & Spiritual Evolution: Summary For Citizens of Planet Earth, (June 2011)

This is why I have little respect for those in the New Age community teaching that a transformation of this world is going to come about by promoting being ignorant and narcissistic…. Crap like “The Law of Attraction” etc etc. Quite frankly, running little cults is not the same as encouraging the spiritual evolution of humanity because that is all Universal Consciousness is interested in seeing at the End Times when energy is provided for a bit of cosmic housekeeping…. Whatever, the secret passed down over millenia by various religious/metaphysical/estoeric/indigenous groups is that at certain points in major astronomical cycles, the whole of humanity is under evolutionary selection but it has nothing to do with Darwinism and the survival of the fittest. Personally, I think there will be a severe depopulation of this planet, Paradise is coming but only for a few human descendents that can meet the tough new spiritual criteria.

  • Lightning strikes St Peter’s Basilica as Pope resigns
    YouTube, 11th February 2013
  • Did medieval predecessor inspire Pope’s retirement?
    Reuters, 11th February 2013
    “Benedict will go to Castelgandolfo, then live in a convent inside the Vatican walls.”

    According to Reuters, Pope Benedict XVI is going to Castel Gandolfol, the old Vatican Observatory that in Jan 2008 was being reported as being dismantled. However, I have checked the website and it looks like it is still operational… Now, I don’t know if we were being told the complete ruth but they do say timing is everything… Seriously, as we have some big comets on the way and a huge chunk of rock that presumably with have an entourage of rocks ready to drop… Asteroid 2012 DA14 is coming so close on February 15th, that it threatens to take out communication satellites, at the same time the Pope is leaving Rome that some believe will be destroyed by a meteorite, see my archives with the Tom Horn Red Ice interview where he repeats this belief in the realms of religious scholars avidly watching the machinations at the Vatican… The Malachy prophecy states that the last Pope will occupy the position and so this implies that the last pope is only in a temporary position…. The person in occupation is now Tarcisio Pietro Evasio Bertone who was born in Romano Canavese, is this the prophesised Peter the Roman? The intrigue… This opens up a whole can of worms after the revelations about the Pope being ‘assasinated’. This was reported in the mainstream news, see the detail provided by the UK Telegraph, in Feb 2012, The Pope will die within a year: Vatican ‘assassination fears’ revealed: The Pope will die within the next 12 months, a senior Vatican figure has reportedly claimed amid fears of an assassination plot. . In fact, in December 2011, a report was written for the Pope Benedict a month after Cardinal Romeo, the archbishop of Palermo in Sicily, during a visit to China predicted the death of Benedict XVI within 12 months. His remarks were expressed with such certainty and resolution that the people he was speaking to were shocked and alarmed and thought an attack on the Pope’s life was being planned. The whole story is now breathtaking, but the article tells us that Pope Benedict could not stand Tarcisio Bertone, his Secretary of State and the Vatican’s second most senior figure. The reports are that there was a bitter power struggle going on within the Holy See. The conspiracy theorists are likely to have a field day especially now a psychic is predicting the arrival of a ‘Red Comet’…. the Red Dragon of the book of Revelations? This is all now getting surreal…
  • Psychic Talks About A Red Comet And Electromagnetic Chaos, 28th January 2013
    Q. On a different psychic site I read that technology will be knocked off the grid for awhile and we should prepare by stocking up on food and water. Do you see this happening? If so, When?

    A-I still see March of this year, this is when we are going to notice technology not being reliable.  I do not see it as being completely wiped off, I just see it as being inconsistent.  Like you might use your phone and it work fine, and then an hour later it cannot find a signal…and I see that with cars..anything electrical.  I see anything using…I am seeing like a rubber fan belt, mechanical things I feel like are almost unaffected.  One of the biggest inconveniences people will have is not having cash on hand because during down times ATM will not work, credit card machines are not going to work, cash registers….all those type of things are not going to work.  So I feel like it is important to have some kind of liquidity on you.  Having food and water IS important, because I see a lot of chaos in that time as well, and it is not that you can’t get food or water, it is just the cost and the selection, and the people around make it more difficult to get what you need.  And if you do not live close to a store you may go there and then your car might not even turn on when you go to leave.  It is like I see broke down cars kind of parked in a lot of different places and I see one of the new things will be to have thieves always going around trying to start cars, because it truly a pot luck of when they work and when they don’t.  I do see things being more reliable at night vs. during the day though.  People try to handle their business at night.  I even see a couple businesses like banks and I don’t know, business that are normally closed during night will start to offer night shift business because they can rely more on their electronics at that time.  Consequently, people that have day jobs might find themselves working night shift jobs.   That is kind of all I see.

    Q-What will the media’s explanation of this be?

    A-At first they are going to not even talk about it, but when it becomes undeniable they are going to say that we are in a weird phase of the sun and some kind of intensity that is given off from the sun is causing it, and that will be their rational for the inconsistency in daylight and why things work better at night.

    A-It is a partial truth, because the sun goes through phases and it has not affected us like this before, but the reason that it is doing this now is because as this RED COMET comes near us and starts messing with our gravitational pull, it does something to the magnetic like field that is around earth and creates weak spots in it which allows the suns intensity to enter into our atmosphere.  That is a more full picture of what is actually happening.

    Q-Will any electronics be physically damaged, or just disabled.

    A-I feel like it is more of a disabled thing vs a destruction.  It is like they cannot communicate to each other.

    A-It looks like they are constantly flowing, but their path is like bent into a different direction…the image I see is electronics going down a straight path and then the sun radiates off to us, and when that is intersected by the path of the electrons, the electrons turn like 90 degrees and keep flowing but go in a completely different directions, so it is really hard for me to interpret that because I do not understand how electricity works.

    Q-Will planes be flying?

    A-I see most flights at night, and during the day the only planes I see are very small.  I do not really see and huge planes.  And they develop weird rules about what timezone they are flying into.  Like you can only go East and not West and weird stuff like that.

    I think the predictions by a psychic in Australia about a Red Comet are so interesting that I have provided a link… Quite frankly, I am mostly interested in the description of electronics failing… I presume this is a proper savant because discussion of a comet slowing down the Earth’s rotation is a strictly heretical concept… but it is the only explanation for why the Earth’s rotation changed from 360 to ~365 days in the past and became a source of great grief to ancient Timekeepers… Some of this could be right, some of this could be wrong and the time frames could be wrong too but the Pope is resigning and taking himself off to the old Vatican observatory at the same time we are told of the appearance of a Red Comet, at a time that is already being called ‘The Year of the Comet’… We don’t know if this is a comet that has already been spotted and being seen in the light spectrum or even in the infra-red… The Red Dragon of Revelation appearing like clockwork would only add to a whole bunch of astronomical signs that have been preserved and foretold for us to expect at The End Times of a major astronomical cycle… Incredibly, it looks like common sense will prevail in the future as this psychic sees disaster resistant dome houses becoming common, (see 11th February blog entry link), this is something I am pleased to read about, almost relieved… see archives.


Extreme Space Weather Triggered Medieval Famines, Say Astrophysicists

January 31, 2013

Famines plagued Iceland and food prices spiked in medieval England following extreme space weather events, according to a new study of historical data

The Earth’s local interplanetary environment is a maelstrom of solar winds, giant clouds of hot plasma ejected from the Sun and violent magnetic fields. To a large extent, we are protected from this so-called space weather by our atmosphere and the Earth’s magnetic field.

But every once in a while, these interplanetary storms are so ferocious that even our planetary defences fail. In 1989, for example, a powerful geomagnetic storm knocked out the Hydro-Quebec power grid leaving six million people without electricity.

Today, Lev  Pustil’nik and Gregory Yom Din at Tel Aviv University in Israel say the effects of space weather could be much more significant than originally thought. These guys make the case that under certain special conditions, space weather can influence terrestrial weather so severely that it can have a dramatic effects on agriculture, causing crop failures, death and starvation.

The evidence linking space weather and terrestrial weather is growing. The idea here is that cosmic rays can ionise dust particles, which then attract water vapour triggering the formation of clouds.

This happens only in regions where the atmosphere is in a critical state with high enough levels of humidity. For example, there is growing evidence that this seems to have happened many times in the cold moist air over the North Atlantic.

This alone cannot influence agricultural output under ordinary conditions, however. Pustil’nik and Yom Din point out that certain crops are hugely vulnerable to dramatic changes in weather at specific times of the year. For example, a cold snap lasting a few days can destroy certain crops without influencing the annual or even monthly mean temperature. If a region is overly dependent on these kinds of crops, then it is vulnerable to the cascading effects of space weather.

But even this need not lead to catastrophe if the local population can easily access food from elsewhere. So one final factor also comes into play which is a region’s isolation.

So their theory is that a region’s agriculture is vulnerable to variations in space weather if it meets three conditions: the local weather must be sensitive to space weather; the local agriculture must be critically vulnerable to sudden changes in weather; and finally, the region must be isolated.

Pustil’nik and Yom Din say that several regions meet these criteria and predict that there ought to be a correlation between space weather and the price of food in these places.

One place they pick out is medieval England, which is vulnerable because it is in the north Atlantic, dependent on wheat which is vulnerable to weather changes and also isolated from mainland Europe.

So an interesting question is whether food prices in medieval England correlate with space weather records.

That sounds a tall order to investigate given the nature of the data. But as it turns out, detailed records of English food prices survive dating back to 1259.

What’s more, accurate space weather records as measured by the number of sunspots date back to the time of Galileo and can be extrapolated further back using other dating methods.

That’s allowed Pustil’nik and Yom Din to look for correlations between the two. Sure enough, they say that wheat prices are significantly correlated with space weather events such as solar maxima and minima, particularly during the so-called Maunder minimum between 1580 and 1700 when solar activity was low.

“All the nine cycles of solar activity during this period are characterized by systematically excessive wheat prices in the years of solar activity minimum, as compared with the prices during the next maximum,” they say, adding that the level of significance is in excess of 99%.

These guys have combed ancient records for a number of other vulnerable places such as Iceland and parts of medieval Europa and say that similar correlations exist there as well. In particular, they say that space weather and famines are strongly correlated in Iceland between 1770 and 1900.

That’s an interesting result that has important implications for the future. It’s easy to imagine that Earth is less vulnerable now to this kind of problem because the global food market means that few places are genuinely isolated from the rest of the world.

However, Pustil’nik and Yom Din say that global warming is pushing more regions closer to the type of critical vulnerability that makes space weather a worry.

That’s something that agriculturists, climatologists and space weather experts might want to investigate together in more detail.

Ref: On Possible Influence of Space Weather on Agricultural Markets: Necessary Conditions and Probable Scenarios


Jonathan Gray – Surprising Discoveries

It’s really quite interesting how some of the older TV shows from the 70′s and 80′s really made an honest attempt to expose humanity’s hidden history, a great example is this episode of Jonathon Gray’s “Surprising Discoveries” that shows an ancient Egyptian lens used for magnification,  evidence of wallpaper made from thin sheets of gold and photo’s of ancient megalithic sites with stonework I haven’t seen before. Did you know the largest building in the world is in China, that it dwarfs the Great Cheops pyramid in Egypt and is taller than the empire state building?! It’s so very irritating knowing how the Smithsonian Institute has warehoused acres of ancient artifacts that reveal the hidden truth about our RICH history, one where advanced technology in the form of alternative  energy and flying machines, that possibly even space travel were common place. The ordinary individual can handle all this knowledge without any problem. But, what frightens academics and those in leadership positions is that we humans devolved over the last several thousand years, meaning the history books are worthless and everything they base their knowledge on is wrong; not to mention what would happen to religion. Why the energy industry doesn’t see all this as a boom industry to take advantage of is way beyond my scope of comprehension…

Uploaded on Jul 13, 2011

Jonathan Gray – Surprising Discoveries. A video dealing with surprising archaeological discoveries such as an ancient mechanical computer and the Bagdad battery.


Head of leopard from Tutankhamon tomb

This head of a leopard was discovered with many others in the antechamber of the young King TutAnkhAmon ( He reigned for 10 years and died at the age of 19 (1341-1323 BC)) tomb with his ceremony wardrobe. As a Sem priest. the young prince during is life time was wearing the priests’ sacred leopard skin tied about his neck by one set of paws, the others embracing his sides during specific ceremonies. High Sem Priests could be recognized by the fact that they wore a short wig with a side-lock and were dressed with a leopard skin attached to their clothes over the upper piece of the body, and leading down over the skirt. and with the animal head as ornament made of gilded wood, stone crystal, translucent quartz and coloured glass.
This head is different from the others in having the king’s cartouche radiating between the eyes. Sem Priests are depicted mainly by egyptologists as funeral priests performing the elaborate rituals at mummifications and burials but for me and others not only it existed other kinds of priests for the funerals but also it seems that Sem Priests were mainly Priests for the Divine and Amon Ra and for all regarding the work of a King, the preservation of order Mâat through the Divine, the spirituality, the knowledge and the afterlife. The choice for this feline is because the skin of leopard looks like a « sea of stars ». And the constant motion of the constellation is the main source of knowledge for us on this planet. The star : « Seba » has different meanings in ancient egyptian depending of your level of counsciousness. « Seba » is meaning also : « teaching »and « knowledge ». Stars were known also to keep the light going to us in order light could affect our mind…
Text&Pic Credit:AntoineGigal2011

Head of leopard from Tutankhamon tomb


Egypt ~ The Denderah Eye

You can see on the ceiling where there is the blue color a huge  round Mirror with Inside the Eye of Ra and Thot-Tehuti beside, watching it . The meaning of this is that mirrors were everyday used Inside the darker parts of the temples in order to reflect the sunny light of Ra everywhere. This was a very strong symbol.The eye of Ra means the Sunny light going everywhere, it is to say : the knowledge and Thot is the one by who all this happens. Thot is the responsible for the coming of Ra on earth by the way of a technology (the Mirror), he is responsible for the coming on Earth of the divine knowledge (the light) by a special process of attraction (reflection by Mirror) adapted to the conditions on the earth(density,gravity). Mirroring the divine, he got for Egypt all the process of knowledge.

Why did men stop wearing high heels?

24 January 2013

By William Kremer

BBC World Service

A man's high-heeled shoe

For generations they have signified femininity and glamour – but a pair of high heels was once an essential accessory for men.

Beautiful, provocative, sexy – high heels may be all these things and more, but even their most ardent fans wouldn’t claim they were practical.

They’re no good for hiking or driving. They get stuck in things. Women in heels are advised to stay off the grass – and also ice, cobbled streets and posh floors.

And high heels don’t tend to be very comfortable. It is almost as though they just weren’t designed for walking in.

Originally, they weren’t.

“The high heel was worn for centuries throughout the near east as a form of riding footwear,” says Elizabeth Semmelhack of the Bata Shoe Museum in Toronto.

Good horsemanship was essential to the fighting styles of the Persia – the historical name for modern-day Iran.

“When the soldier stood up in his stirrups, the heel helped him to secure his stance so that he could shoot his bow and arrow more effectively,” says Semmelhack.

At the end of the 16th Century, Persia’s Shah Abbas I had the largest cavalry in the world. He was keen to forge links with rulers in Western Europe to help him defeat his great enemy, the Ottoman Empire.

Copyright © 2013 Bata Shoe Museum, Toronto, Canada A men’s 17th Century Persian shoe, covered in shagreen – horse-hide with pressed mustard seeds

So in 1599, Abbas sent the first Persian diplomatic mission to Europe – it called on the courts of Russia, Germany and Spain.

A wave of interest in all things Persian passed through Western Europe. Persian style shoes were enthusiastically adopted by aristocrats, who sought to give their appearance a virile, masculine edge that, it suddenly seemed, only heeled shoes could supply.

Louis XIV painted in 1701 by Hyacinthe Rigaud (Getty Images)
Louis XIV wearing his trademark heels in a 1701 portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud

As the wearing of heels filtered into the lower ranks of society, the aristocracy responded by dramatically increasing the height of their shoes – and the high heel was born.

In the muddy, rutted streets of 17th Century Europe, these new shoes had no utility value whatsoever – but that was the point.

“One of the best ways that status can be conveyed is through impracticality,” says Semmelhack, adding that the upper classes have always used impractical, uncomfortable and luxurious clothing to announce their privileged status.

“They aren’t in the fields working and they don’t have to walk far.”

When it comes to history’s most notable shoe collectors, the Imelda Marcos of his day was arguably Louis XIV of France. For a great king, he was rather diminutively proportioned at only 5ft 4in (1.63m).

He supplemented his stature by a further 4in (10cm) with heels, often elaborately decorated with depictions of battle scenes.

The heels and soles were always red – the dye was expensive and carried a martial overtone. The fashion soon spread overseas – Charles II of England’s coronation portrait of 1661 features him wearing a pair of enormous red, French style heels – although he was over 6ft (1.85m) to begin with.

In the 1670s, Louis XIV issued an edict that only members of his court were allowed to wear red heels. In theory, all anyone in French society had to do to check whether someone was in favour with the king was to glance downwards. In practice, unauthorised, imitation heels were available.

Red soles are back

 A child's shoe from the mid-17th Century and a Christian Louboutin from 2007
  • The 17th Century shoe on the left, which may have been French, was for a child – its stacked leather heel was painted red to suggest privilege
  • “An obvious link with Louis XIV and the red sole and heel is Christian Louboutin’s red sole (right), which is today one of the most immediate and recognisable status symbols,” says Helen Persson from the Victoria and Albert Museum
  • But while today’s fashion designers have a huge array of plastics and metals in their toolbox, it was an engineering challenge for 17th Century shoemakers to support the instep on a high heel
  • One solution was to place the heel very far forward in the shoe – this effectively transferred the problem from the shoemaker to the wearer

Although Europeans were first attracted to heels because the Persian connection gave them a macho air, a craze in women’s fashion for adopting elements of men’s dress meant their use soon spread to women and children.

“In the 1630s you had women cutting their hair, adding epaulettes to their outfits,” says Semmelhack.

“They would smoke pipes, they would wear hats that were very masculine. And this is why women adopted the heel – it was in an effort to masculinise their outfits.”

From that time, Europe’s upper classes followed a unisex shoe fashion until the end of the 17th Century, when things began to change again.

“You start seeing a change in the heel at this point,” says Helen Persson, a curator at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. “Men started to have a squarer, more robust, lower, stacky heel, while women’s heels became more slender, more curvaceous.”

Why are high heels sexy?

Jane Hamilton modelling a swimsuit in heels, 1938

Association Elizabeth Semmelhack believes that high heels began to be seen as erotic footwear when they came back into fashion in the late 19th Century – the nude models on French postcards were often wearing them

Biology Dr Helen Fischer, a biological anthropologist at Rutgers University, says that heels force women into a “natural courting pose” found amongst mammals, with an arched back and protruding buttocks

Patriarchy Not only do heels transform the way women’s bodies look to please men, they cause them pain and prevent them from running away – radical feminist Sheila Jeffreys says they are one way in which women are forced to “compensate for the lack of power that men may be having”

The toes of women’s shoes were often tapered so that when the tips appeared from her skirts, the wearer’s feet appeared to be small and dainty.

Fast forward a few more years and the intellectual movement that came to be known as the Enlightenment brought with it a new respect for the rational and useful and an emphasis on education rather than privilege. Men’s fashion shifted towards more practical clothing. In England, aristocrats began to wear simplified clothes that were linked to their work managing country estates.

It was the beginning of what has been called the Great Male Renunciation, which would see men abandon the wearing of jewellery, bright colours and ostentatious fabrics in favour of a dark, more sober, and homogeneous look. Men’s clothing no longer operated so clearly as a signifier of social class, but while these boundaries were being blurred, the differences between the sexes became more pronounced.

“There begins a discussion about how men, regardless of station, of birth, if educated could become citizens,” says Semmelhack.

“Women, in contrast, were seen as emotional, sentimental and uneducatable. Female desirability begins to be constructed in terms of irrational fashion and the high heel – once separated from its original function of horseback riding – becomes a primary example of impractical dress.”

High heels were seen as foolish and effeminate. By 1740 men had stopped wearing them altogether.

But it was only 50 years before they disappeared from women’s feet too, falling out of favour after the French Revolution.

By the time the heel came back into fashion, in the mid-19th Century, photography was transforming the way that fashions – and the female self-image – were constructed.

Pornographers were amongst the first to embrace the new technology, taking pictures of naked women for dirty postcards, positioning models in poses that resembled classical nudes, but wearing modern-day high heels.

Elizabeth Semmelhack, author of Heights of Fashion: A History of the Elevated Shoe, believes that this association with pornography led to high heels being seen as an erotic adornment for women.

Two men wearing modern high heels
A rare sight – men in high heels at a gay pride party in Spain in 2005

The 1960s saw a return of low heeled cowboy boots for men and some dandies strutted their stuff in platform shoes in the 1970s.

But the era of men walking around on their toes seems to be behind us. Could we ever return to an era of guys squeezing their big hairy feet into four-inch, shiny, brightly coloured high heels?

“Absolutely,” says Semmelhack. There is no reason, she believes, why the high heel cannot continue to be ascribed new meanings – although we may have to wait for true gender equality first.

“If it becomes a signifier of actual power, then men will be as willing to wear it as women.”